PHOM Indicator Profile Report of Prediabetes
Why Is This Important?The American Diabetes Association defines "prediabetes" as a fasting plasma glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 125 mg/dL. A1C tests are commonly used for diagnosing prediabetes. A1C levels greater than or equal to 5.7% and less than 6.5% are used to indicate prediabetes. Another test used is the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Values between 140 mg/dL and 199 mg/dL indicate prediabetes. Although blood sugar levels for prediabetes do not meet the clinical threshold for a diagnosis of diabetes, individuals with prediabetes still have an increased risk for heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. However, many people with prediabetes are unaware of their condition. Once individuals are aware of that they have prediabetes and of their increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular complications, they can make the necessary lifestyle changes to prevent or at least delay progression to type 2 diabetes. Steps can be taken to prevent progression to diabetes. Simple lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, eating more fruits and vegetables, and increasing physical activity, can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Without making lifestyle changes, approximately half of individuals diagnosed with prediabetes progress to diabetes within ten years. More information about the clinical thresholds for prediabetes can be found at [http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diagnosis].
The rate of prediabetes diagnosis dramatically increases after age 50 for both men and women.
Data SourceUtah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health
Data NotesIn 2016, Utah BRFSS modified its methodology for age adjustment to increase precision of the estimates. With this change Utah data is more consistent with both the U.S. and other states using IBIS. Data used in graphs from 2011 forward have been updated to reflect this change.
Risk FactorsSome people diagnosed with prediabetes will develop diabetes. Being overweight or obese is a major risk factor for developing diabetes. The risk of developing diabetes can be substantially reduced through weight loss and regular physical activity. The National Diabetes Primary Prevention Study (National DPP) showed that weight loss and participation in regular physical activity can significantly decrease the risk. The National DPP clinical trial included over 3,000 people who had impaired fasting glucose and were at an increased risk for developing diabetes. Participants who engaged in moderately intense physical activity for 30 minutes per day and lost 5 to 7 percent of their body weight decreased their risk of diabetes dramatically. This change was effective for all participants in the study, regardless of age or ethnic group (see [http://www.niddk.nih.gov/about-niddk/research-areas/diabetes/diabetes-prevention-program-dpp/Pages/default.aspx]). Some risk factors cannot be modified, such as older age or membership in a minority racial or ethnic group. Nevertheless, risk can be substantially reduced through adhering to a nutritious diet and participating in regular physical activity.
How Are We Doing?The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about one-third of U.S. adults (aged 20 and over) have prediabetes. Most people with prediabetes do not know they have it. The Utah Department of Health (UDOH) has been working to increase awareness of prediabetes. In 2013, 5.8% of adults reported they had been told by a health care provider that they had prediabetes. Data collected in 2017 (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System) showed this percentage increased to 8.1% (crude rates). While this increased rate may be partly due to a true increase, it is also likely reflects the increased awareness by providers and patients.
What Is Being Done?In 2013, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) received funding to increase awareness of prediabetes. While it may seem counterintuitive, the UDOH is working towards increasing the rate of prevalence of prediabetes in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. National data suggest that many individuals have prediabetes but have not been told so by a health care provider and are not aware they have it. The UDOH is working to increase awareness of this condition among health care providers as well as individuals at risk.
Healthy People Objective: Reduce the annual number of new cases of diagnosed diabetes in the populationU.S. Target: 7.2 new cases per 1,000 population aged 18 to 84 years
State Target: 7.2 new cases per 1,000 population aged 18 to 84 years
Date Indicator Content Last Updated: 11/14/2018
- by Year, Utah and U.S., 2011-2017
- Age-adjusted Rates by Local Health District, Utah, 2014 and 2016-2017
- (Crude Rates) by Age and Sex, Utah, 2017
- Age-adjusted Rates by Ethnicity, Utah, 2017
- Age-adjusted Rates by Sex, Utah, 2017
- Age-adjusted Rates by Education, Utah Adults 25+, 2017
- Age-adjusted Rates by Body Mass Index, Utah, 2017
- Age-adjusted Rates by Cholesterol Level, Utah, 2017
- Age-adjusted Rates by Hypertension Status, Utah, 2017
- Age-adjusted Rates by Utah Small Area, 2009, 2011-2014, 2016, and 2017 (all available years)