DefinitionRate of newly reported cases of chlamydia by date of diagnosis per 100,000 persons.
NumeratorNumber of newly reported cases of chlamydia by date of diagnosis.
DenominatorNumber of persons in Utah.
Data Interpretation IssuesReported chlamydia rates are calculated by dividing the number of cases within the population of interest by the total number of persons within that population, then multiplying by 100,000. It should be noted that rates within small populations are volatile; a small change in the number of cases can noticeably change the rate. This change may look significant, but, statistically, it may not be. Caution is strongly recommended when interpreting small case numbers and rates.
Why Is This Important?Infections caused by the bacterium ''Chlamydia trachomatis'' are the most frequently reported notifiable disease in Utah, with 10,541 cases reported in 2018. Over sixty percent of the reported cases were among persons between 15 and 24 years of age. The overall rate for chlamydia in Utah in 2018 was 333.5 cases per 100,000 persons.
Females with chlamydia are at risk for developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and both men and women may become infertile as a result of untreated chlamydia. Untreated chlamydia infections can damage the reproductive systems of both males and females. Susceptibility to more serious infections such as HIV also increases when an individual is infected with chlamydia. In addition, pregnant women with chlamydia can pass the infection to their infant during delivery, potentially resulting in pneumonia or neonatal ophthalmia.
Healthy People Objective STD-1:Reduce the proportion of adolescents and young adults with ''Chlamydia trachomatis'' infections
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category
Other ObjectivesRelated Healthy People 2020 Objectives
STD-1: Reduce the proportion of adolescents and young adults with ''Chlamydia trachomatis'' infections among:[[br]]
* STD-1.1: Females aged 15 to 24 years attending family planning clinics
* STD-1.2: Females aged 24 years and under enrolled in a National Job Training Program
* STD-1.3: Males aged 24 years and under enrolled in a National Job Training Program
STD-3: Increase the proportion of sexually active females aged 24 years and under enrolled in Medicaid plans who are screened for genital Chlamydia infections during the measurement year among:
* STD-3.1: Females aged 16 to 20 years
* STD-3.2: Females aged 21 to 24 years
STD-4: Increase the proportion of sexually active females aged 24 years and under enrolled in commercial health insurance plans who are screened for genital Chlamydia infections during the measurement year among:
* STD-4.1: Females aged 16 to 20 years
* STD-4.2: Females aged 21 to 24 years
STD-5: Reduce the proportion of females aged 15 to 44 years who have ever required treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
How Are We Doing?Chlamydia rates in Utah have increased from 2000 to 2018, except for a slight decrease in 2004 (2.7%) and 2013 (2.9%). The overall rate increase can be attributed to increased screening efforts, use of increasingly sensitive diagnostic testing, efforts to increase reporting by providers and laboratories, and improved information systems for reporting. Such increased rates can be interpreted as an advancement in disease control as more infections are identified and treated, providing opportunity to intervene in the spread of infection.
Chlamydial infections in both men and women are commonly asymptomatic, yet screenings occur more often among females, resulting in higher rates of reported infections among females. However, with the increased availability of urine testing, men are increasingly being tested for chlamydial infection. Over the past 10 years in Utah, the chlamydia rate in men increased by 50.8% as compared to a 46.3% increase in women over this period.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?Chlamydial infections are the most frequently reported notifiable disease in the U.S., with 1,758,668 cases reported in 2018. Of these reported chlamydia infections, 61.7% were among those 15 to 24 years of age. The overall rate for chlamydia in the U.S. in 2018 was 539.9 cases per 100,000 persons. The chlamydia rate in Utah is significantly lower than the U.S. rate. In 2018, the chlamydia rate in Utah ranked 46th in the nation. (CDC. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats18 ''Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance''], 2018)
In Utah in 2018, persons aged 20 to 24 years reported the highest rates of chlamydia in both males and females. The rate for females in this age group in Utah in 2018 was 2,009.4 cases per 100,000 persons compared with 4,064.6 cases per 100,000 persons in the U.S. The rate for males aged 20 to 24 years in Utah in 2018 was 884.0 per 100,000 persons compared with 1,784.5 cases per 100,000 persons in the U.S. in 2018. (CDC. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats18/default.htm ''Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance''], 2018)
What Is Being Done?Persons who test positive for chlamydia are confidentially interviewed by a disease intervention specialist from their local health department to educate the patient, ensure proper treatment, and to obtain sexual partner information for follow up. This process helps prevent diagnosed individuals from spreading the infection and the patient from becoming reinfected.
The Utah Department of Health Communicable Disease Prevention Program, along with local health departments, currently provide STD (sexually transmitted disease) presentations upon request to a variety of organizations, agencies, and facilities.