Health Indicator Report of Immunizations - Pneumonia, Adults
Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria that can spread from person to person through lose contact. It can cause ear infections, and it can also lead to more serious infections of the lungs (pneumonia), blood (bacteremia), and covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Anyone can get pneumococcal disease, but children under 2 years of age and adults over 65 years and older, people with certain medical conditions, and cigarette smokers are at the highest risk. Before there was a vaccine, the United States saw: *more than 700 cases of meningitis *about 13,000 blood infections *about 5 million ear infections *about 200 deaths [[br]] Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs is not as effective as it used to be, because some strains of pneumococcal are resistant to these drugs. This makes prevention of the disease, through vaccine even more important^1^. [[br]] [[br]] ====Pneumococcal Vaccines==== There are two pneumococcal vaccines that are licensed for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): * pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 or Prevnar 13) * pneumococcal polysacchardie vaccine (PPSV23 or Pneumovax23)[[br]] [[br]] The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is recommended for: * all babies and children younger than 2 years old * all adults age 65 years and older * people with certain illnesses (sickle cell disease; HIV infection; diabetes; immune compromising conditions; nephrotic syndrome; chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease; or damaged/absent spleen) * people with compromised immune systems (including people with HIV) * those with cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid leaks * individuals who smoke cigarettes[[br]] [[br]] The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is recommended for: *all adults 65 years or older * people 2 through 64 with chronic illnesses (sickle cell disease; HIV infection; diabetes; immune compromising conditions; nephrotic syndrome; chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease; or damaged/absent spleen) * those with cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid leaks * individuals 19 through 64 who smoke cigarettes [[br]] ====Is it necessary to receive booster doses of pneumococcal vaccine?==== Those who should get a booster include: * people age 65 and older who received the vaccine before age 65, if more than five years have passed * people who have received a transplant * people with chronic kidney disease * people with compromised immune systems [[br]] Adults who are 65 years or older and who have not previously received PCV13, should receive a dose of PCV13 first, followed 6 to 12 months later by a dose of PPSV23. If someone has already received one or more doses of PPSV23, the dose of PCV13 should be given at least 1 year after the most recent dose of PPSV23^2^. A 2006 study published in the medical journal Clinical Infectious Diseases found that hospital patients who received the pneumococcal vaccine were 40 to 70 percent less likely to die than unvaccinated patients. In the study, vaccinated patients had a lower risk of respiratory failure, kidney failure, heart attack, and other complications. Vaccinated patients in the study also spent an average of two fewer days in the hospital^3^.[[br]] [[br]] ---- 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "Pneumococcal Conjugate (PCV13) VIS. Retrieved from: [https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html] [[br]] 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ''Pneumococcal Vaccination: Who Needs It?'' Retrieved from: [https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/pneumo/public/index.html][[br]] 3. Vila-Crcoles, et al. Protective Effects of the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in the Elderly Population: The EVAN-65 Study. ''Clinical Infectious Diseases''. Retrieved from: [http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/7/860.full]
Percentage of Adults 65+ Who Reported Having Ever Received Pneumococcal Vaccination, Utah and U.S., 1997-2017
NotesBeginning in 2011, BRFSS data include both landline and cell phone respondent data along with a new weighting methodology called iterative proportional fitting, or raking. This methodology utilizes additional demographic information (such as education, race, and marital status) in the weighting procedure. Both of these methodology changes were implemented to account for an increased number of U.S. households without landline phones and an under-representation of certain demographic groups that were not well-represented in the sample. More details about these changes can be found at: [https://ibis.health.utah.gov/pdf/opha/resource/brfss/RakingImpact2011.pdf]
- Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health
- U.S. Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Division of Behavioral Surveillance, CDC Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services
DefinitionPercentage of adults 65+ who reported receiving a pneumococcal vaccination at any point in their lifetime.
NumeratorNumber of survey respondents age 65+ who reported receiving a pneomococcal vaccine anytime during their life.
DenominatorNumber of survey respondents age 65+.
Healthy People Objective IID-13.1:Increase the percentage of noninstitutionalized adults aged 65 years and older adults who are vaccinated against pneumococcal disease
U.S. Target: 90.0 percent
How Are We Doing?Lifetime pneumococcal vaccination rates for Utah adults 65+ have significantly improved since 1997 when data were first collected on the BRFSS. The 1997 rate was 48.5% (95% confidence interval, 42.2%-54.8%) and by 2017 the rate had increased to 73.9% (71.5-76.1%). However, due to a change in the BRFSS methodology in 2011, it is not possible to know if this is a significant change.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?In 2017, the pneumococcal vaccination rate for the U.S. (50 states plus D.C.) was 74.7%, while the Utah rate was 73.9%.
Available ServicesThe Utah Immunization Program (UIP) started the Senior Outreach Initiative to cover pneumococcal vaccines for adults aged 60+ who lack insurance or vaccine coverage under Medicare. The local health departments and a few specialty providers (homeless shelters, jails, etc.) are responsible for running the project in conjunction with the UIP.
Page Content Updated On 02/26/2019, Published on 03/01/2019