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Complete Health Indicator Report of Daily Vegetable Consumption

Definition

The proportion of adults who reported consuming vegetables at least three times a day in the past month.

Numerator

The number of survey respondents who reported consuming vegetables at least three times a day in the past month.

Denominator

The total number of survey respondents.

Data Interpretation Issues

Vegetable questions were revised in 2011, so results cannot be compared with previous years. To reduce bias and more accurately represent population data, the BRFSS has changed survey methodology. In 2010, it began conducting surveys by cellular phone in addition to landline phones. It also adopted "iterative proportional fitting" (raking) as its weighting method. More details about these changes can be found at: [https://ibis.health.utah.gov/pdf/opha/resource/brfss/RakingImpact2011.pdf].

Why Is This Important?

Fruits and vegetables contain essential vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other compounds that may help prevent many chronic diseases. People who eat at adequate amount of fruits and vegetables are likely to have reduced risk of chronic diseases, including stroke and perhaps other cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers.^1^ Fruits and vegetables also help people achieve and maintain a healthy weight because they are relatively low in energy density.^2^, ^3^ To promote health and prevent chronic diseases, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend 2.5 cups of vegetables per day for a standard 2,000 calorie diet, with recommendations based on an individual's age, gender, and activity level.^4^ [[br]][[br]] ---- 1. CDC. ''Can eating fruits and vegetables help people to manage their weight?'' (Research to Practice Series No. 1) [Online Access] [http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/nutrition/pdf/rtp_practitioner_10_07.pdf][[br]] 2. CDC "Low-Energy-Dense Foods and Weight Management:Cutting Calories WhileControlling Hunger." [https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/nutrition/pdf/r2p_energy_density.pdf] [[br]] 3. World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research. ''Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective.'' November 2007. [Online Access] [http://www.dietandcancerreport.org] [[br]] 4. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015-2020. [https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/]

Healthy People Objective NWS-15:

Increase the variety and contribution of vegetables to the diets of the population aged 2 years and older
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category

Other Objectives

Increase the proportion of persons aged 18 years and older who consume vegetables at least three times a day. [[br]] '''Utah Target:''' 18%

How Are We Doing?

Only 17.2% of Utah adults in 2015 reported eating vegetables three or more times a day in the past month (age-adjusted rate).

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2015, there was no significant difference in the percentage of adults who consumed vegetables three times a day between adults in Utah (17.2%) and overall for the U.S. (16.8%).

What Is Being Done?

In 2013, through funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Healthy Living through Environment, Policy, and Improved Clinical Care Program (EPICC) was established. EPICC works on Environmental Approaches that Promote Health. EPICC works: In Schools:[[br]] 1) Schools are encouraged to adopt the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. This framework encourages students to be physically active for 60 minutes a day through school, home and community activities.[[br]] 2) Height and weight trends are being tracked in a sample of elementary students to monitor Utah students.[[br]] 3) Action for Healthy Kids brings partners together to improve nutrition and physical activity environments in Utah's schools by implementing the school-based state plan strategies, working with local school boards to improve or develop policies for nutritious foods in schools. This includes recommendations for healthy vending options. In Worksites:[[br]] 1) The Utah Council for Worksite Health Promotion recognizes businesses that offer employee fitness and health promotion programs.[[br]] 2) EPICC partners with local health departments to encourage worksites to complete the CDC Scorecard and participate in yearly health risk assessment for their employees. EPICC provides toolkits and other resources for employers interested in implementing wellness programs through the [http://choosehealth.utah.gov choosehealth.utah.gov] website: [http://choosehealth.utah.gov/worksites/why-worksite-wellness.php] -- In Communities:[[br]] 1) Local health departments (LHDs) receive federal funding to partner with schools, worksites, and other community based organizations to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables through farmers markets and retail stores. LHDs also work with cities within their jurisdictions to create a built environment that encourages physical activity. In Healthcare:[[br]] 1) EPICC works with health care systems to establish community clinical linkages to support individuals at risk for or diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension to engage in lifestyle change programs such as chronic disease self-management and diabetes prevention programs. In Childcare:[[br]] 1) Nine local health departments statewide have implemented the TOP Star program, which aims to improve the nutrition and physical activity environments and achieve best practice in child care centers and homes.[[br]] 2) EPICC works with state and local partners through the Childcare Obesity Prevention workgroup to implement policy and systems changes in early care and education across agencies statewide.

Evidence-based Practices

The EPICC program promotes evidence based practices collected by the Center TRT. The Center for Training and Research Translation (Center TRT) bridges the gap between research and practice and supports the efforts of public health practitioners working in nutrition, physical activity, and obesity prevention by: *Reviewing evidence of public health impact and disseminating population-level interventions; *Designing and providing practice-relevant training both in-person and web-based; *Addressing social determinants of health and health equity through training and translation efforts; and *Providing guidance on evaluating policies and programs aimed at impacting healthy eating and physical activity.[[br]] [[br]] Information about evidence based interventions can be found at:[[br]] [http://www.centertrt.org/?p=interventions_interventions_overview]

Available Services

Visit [http://www.choosehealth.utah.gov] for more information. The [http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ MyPlate] food guidance system provides consumer tools in English and Spanish to meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including individualized plans, tools to track intake, and plans for early childhood, pregnancy, and lactation. The [http://www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org/ Fruits & Veggies--More Matters], the [http://www.choosemyplate.gov/MyPlate/ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)] and [http://www.pbhfoundation.org/ Produce for Better Health] websites include a kids' site, educational brochures, recipes, and consumer tips for selecting, storing, and preparing vegetables.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

Overall, more women than men reported eating vegetables three times or more a day. A higher percentage of college graduates ate vegetables three times a day than adults with lower education. Some regional differences for local health departments and small areas were also seen. Race/ethnicity, age, and income did not significantly influence the rates of adults consuming vegetables three times or more a day.

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Risk Factors

There is some evidence that people who develop the habit of eating fruits and vegetables early in life are likely to maintain the behavior as adults^1^.[[br]] [[br]] ---- 1. CDC. ''Can eating fruits and vegetables help people to manage their weight?'' (Research to Practice Series No. 1) [Online Access] [http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/nutrition/pdf/rtp_practitioner_10_07.pdf][[br]]

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

People who eat few fruits and vegetables are at higher risk for developing several types of cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other chronic diseases.

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Vegetables Consumed Three or More Times Per Day, Utah and U.S., 2011-2015

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confidence limits

A slightly higher percentage of adults in Utah eat three or more servings of vegetables a day than overall adults in the U.S.
BRFSS Utah vs. U.S.YearAge-adjusted Percentage of AdultsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 7
UT New Methodology201116.7%15.8%17.5%
UT New Methodology201218.2%16.4%20.1%
UT New Methodology201317.6%16.7%18.4%
UT New Methodology201517.2%16.3%18.1%
US New Methodology201115.4%15.1%15.6%
US New Methodology201316.2%16.0%16.4%
US New Methodology201516.8%16.5%17.0%

Data Notes

In 2011, the BRFSS changed its methodology from a landline only sample and weighting based on post-stratification to a landline/cell phone sample and raking as the weighting methodology. Raking accounts for variables such as income, education, marital status, and home ownership during weighting and has the potential to more accurately reflect the population distribution. Due to changes in both sampling and the fruit consumption question format, 2011 data should not be compared to previous years. U.S. data do not include U.S. territories, but do include District of Columbia. Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.

Data Sources

  • Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health
  • U.S. Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Division of Behavioral Surveillance, CDC Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services


Vegetables Consumed Three or More Times Per Day by Race, Utah Adults Aged 18+, 2013, 2015

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confidence limits

Asian adults have the highest rate (23.7%) of three or more servings of vegetables a day. This view combines two years of data (2013, 2015) to get reliable estimates. Note the total for the state refers to two years of combined data (i.e., not just 2015).
Race/EthnicityAge-adjusted Percentage of AdultsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 7
American Indian, Alaskan Native18.7%13.7%25.0%
Asian23.7%17.5%31.2%
Black, African American21.6%14.3%31.2%
Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander14.9%8.5%24.7%
White17.1%16.5%17.8%
Other19.3%16.0%23.1%
All Races/Ethnicities17.4%16.8%18.1%

Data Notes

Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population based on 3 age groups: 18-34, 35-49, and 50+. This view combines two years of data (2013, 2015) to get reliable estimates. Note the total for the state refers to two years of combined data (i.e., not just 2015).

Data Source

Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health


Vegetables Consumed Three or More Times Per Day by Ethnicity, Utah Adults Aged 18+, 2013, 2015

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confidence limits

Hispanic adults have a higher rate of consuming three servings of vegetables daily than non-Hispanic adults. This view combines two years of data (2013, 2015) to get reliable estimates. Note the total for the state refers to two years of combined data (i.e., not just 2015).
Hispanic EthnicityAge-adjusted Percentage of AdultsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 3
Hispanic18.9%16.6%21.4%
Non-Hispanic17.0%16.4%17.7%
All Utahns17.4%16.7%18.0%

Data Notes

Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.

Data Source

Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health


Vegetables Consumed Three or More Times Per Day by Local Health District, Utah, 2013, 2015

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confidence limits

Summit County had the highest percentage of adults who consume three or more servings of vegetables daily, 20.4%.
Local Health DistrictAge-adjusted Percentage of Adults 18+Lower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 14
Bear River15.9%13.6%18.4%
Central12.7%10.4%15.6%
Davis County15.3%13.7%17.2%
Salt Lake County18.4%17.4%19.6%
San Juan17.9%10.1%29.7%^
Southeast14.0%10.4%18.6%
Southwest16.5%14.4%18.9%
Summit20.4%16.4%25.1%
Tooele13.9%10.7%17.8%
TriCounty13.5%11.0%16.6%
Utah County18.6%17.1%20.2%
Wasatch18.0%13.6%23.4%
Weber-Morgan17.4%15.2%19.7%
State of Utah17.4%16.7%18.0%

Data Notes

Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.[[br]] ^Use caution in interpreting rate for San Juan LHD; the estimate has a coefficient of variation >30% and is therefore deemed unreliable by Utah Department of Health standards.

Data Source

Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health


Vegetables Consumed Three or More Times Per Day by Age and Sex, Utah, 2015

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confidence limits

Women have higher rates of 3 or more servings of vegetables a day than men across every age group. Among women, the lowest rate of 3 or more servings a day is among women aged 65 and over.
Males vs. FemalesAge GroupPercentage of AdultsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 12
Male18-3414.8%12.5%17.3%
Male35-4914.6%12.2%17.3%
Male50-6412.7%10.7%15.0%
Male65+11.0%9.0%13.6%
Female18-3418.8%16.4%21.5%
Female35-4923.8%21.1%26.6%
Female50-6421.7%19.2%24.5%
Female65+17.1%14.6%19.9%
Total18-3416.8%15.1%18.6%
Total35-4919.2%17.4%21.1%
Total50-6417.3%15.6%19.1%
Total65+14.3%12.6%16.2%

Data Source

Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health


Vegetables Consumed Three or More Times Per Day by Utah Small Area, 2013 and 2015 (Combined Years)

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confidence limits

There was considerable variation in the percentage of adults consuming three or more servings of vegetables daily by Utah Small Area. The lowest percentage was seen for the Small Area of Carbon/Emery Counties (10.0%, significantly lower than the state rate) and the highest was seen for Grand County (29.9%, significantly higher than the state of 17.4% for the two years combined).
Utah Small AreasAge-adjusted Percentage of AdultsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 66
Brigham City14.1%9.5%20.4%
Box Elder Co (Other)15.5%10.4%22.4%
Logan16.8%13.4%20.9%
Cache Co (Oth)/Rich Co (All)15.8%11.6%21.2%
Ben Lomond17.4%12.5%23.5%
Morgan Co (All)/Weber Co (E)18.3%14.1%23.4%
Ogden (Downtown)16.0%11.5%21.9%
South Ogden21.5%15.9%28.4%
Roy/Hooper13.9%10.2%18.7%
Riverdale20.7%14.1%29.2%
Clearfield/Hill AFB12.7%9.3%17.1%
Layton16.4%13.0%20.4%
Syracuse/Kaysville16.5%12.9%20.8%
Farmington/Centerville15.7%10.9%22.0%
Woods Cross/North Salt Lake12.1%7.7%18.6%
Bountiful17.2%13.0%22.3%
SLC (Rose Park)20.2%14.2%28.0%
SLC (Avenues)19.4%13.0%28.0%
SLC (Foothill/U of U)20.2%14.5%27.5%
Magna13.0%7.9%20.4%
SLC (Glendale)18.2%11.8%26.9%
West Valley (West)17.6%13.7%22.4%
West Valley (East) V215.1%10.8%20.6%
SLC (Downtown)23.1%18.4%28.4%
South Salt Lake14.6%9.3%22.2%
Millcreek21.1%17.0%26.0%
Holladay23.2%17.6%29.9%
Cottonwood20.5%15.9%26.0%
Kearns V215.2%10.4%21.8%
Taylorsville (E)/Murray (W)16.5%12.0%22.3%
Taylorsville (West)15.2%10.8%21.0%
Murray16.2%11.5%22.3%
Midvale18.9%13.1%26.5%
West Jordan (NE) V215.0%10.1%21.8%
West Jordan (SE)16.8%11.9%23.1%
West Jordan (W)/Copperton15.5%10.7%21.7%
South Jordan17.3%13.6%21.8%
Sandy (Center)16.8%12.7%22.0%
Sandy (NE)20.4%14.2%28.5%
Sandy (SE)17.4%12.1%24.4%
Riverton/Draper21.8%18.5%25.5%
Tooele Co13.9%10.7%17.8%
Lehi/Cedar Valley15.5%12.2%19.5%
American Fork/Alpine25.3%20.5%30.8%
Pleasant Grove/Lindon22.6%17.5%28.6%
Orem (North)19.9%14.2%27.0%
Orem (West)24.5%18.0%32.5%
Orem (East)13.3%8.1%21.1%
Provo (North)/BYU13.1%9.2%18.3%
Provo (South)15.1%10.7%21.0%
Springville/Spanish Fork17.4%14.0%21.4%
Utah Co (South)17.9%12.5%25.1%
Summit Co20.4%16.4%25.1%
Wasatch Co18.0%13.6%23.4%
TriCounty LHD13.5%11.0%16.6%
Juab/Millard/Sanpete Co12.6%9.8%16.0%
Sevier/Piute/Wayne Co13.7%9.1%20.2%
Carbon/Emery Co10.0%6.8%14.5%
Grand County29.9%19.7%42.6%
San Juan County17.9%10.1%29.7%^
St George15.8%12.4%19.9%
Washington Co (Other)17.3%13.2%22.3%
Cedar City16.7%12.1%22.6%
Southwest LHD (Other)15.2%10.5%21.5%
State17.4%16.8%18.0%

Data Notes

Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. Due to smaller number of respondents in Utah Small Areas, data from 2013 through 2015 results were combined to increase reliability. [[br]] ^Use caution in interpreting rate for San Juan County; the estimate has a coefficient of variation >30% and is therefore deemed unreliable by Utah Department of Health standards. A description of the Utah Small Areas may be found on IBIS at the following URL: [http://ibis.health.utah.gov/resource/Help.html].

Data Source

Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health


Vegetables Consumed Three or More Times Per Day by Income, Utah, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Adults in households with annual incomes of $75,000 per year or higher have the highest percentage of consuming three or more servings of vegetables a day than adults in other income groups.
Income CategoryAge-adjusted Percentage of AdultsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 5
<$25,00015.4%13.1%18.0%
$25,000-$49,99916.1%14.2%18.2%
$50,000-$74,99916.5%14.4%18.9%
$75,000+18.5%16.9%20.2%
Total17.2%16.3%18.1%

Data Notes

Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.

Data Source

Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health


Vegetables Consumed Three or More Times Per Day by Education, Utah, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Adults who are college graduates have higher rates of consuming 3 or more servings of vegetables daily than adults with lower levels of education.
Education LevelAge-adjusted Percentage of Adults 25+Lower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 5
Less Than High School17.0%12.7%22.3%
H.S. Grad or G.E.D.13.7%12.0%15.5%
Some Post High School17.0%15.5%18.7%
College Graduate21.2%19.7%22.7%
Total17.6%16.6%18.6%

Data Notes

Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. Percentages include only adults aged 25 or older.

Data Source

Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health

References and Community Resources

Healthy Living Through Environment, Policy, and Improved Clinical Care Program, Utah Department of Health[[br]] [http://www.choosehealth.utah.gov] MyPlate and Super Tracker[[br]] [http://www.choosemyplate.gov] Produce for Better Health, Fruits & Veggies--More Matters[[br]] [http://www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org] National Fruit and Vegetable Alliance[[br]] [http://www.nfva.org/national_action_plan.html]

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 10/31/2017, Published on 11/28/2017
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Tue, 21 August 2018 0:07:40 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 16:20:12 MST