Health Indicator Report of Child physical abuse, self-reported
All types of child abuse represent a threat to public health. Child physical abuse is one of eight commonly tracked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and research into child abuse and neglect (CAN) and ACEs has consistently shown the potential for many negative long-term impacts on health, opportunity, and well-being. Tracking child abuse prevalence is a complicated task and some of the best data available are self-reported retrospective data which gives a more complete view of prevalence over child protective services or hospital data.
There was no significant difference in the prevalence of physical abuse between male and female adults looking back at their childhoods (~1 in 5). Female youth, however, indicated a significantly higher prevalence of physical abuse in the last 12 months than male youth (~1 in 8 vs ~1 in 11).
Self-reported child physical abuse prevalence (Utah YRBS/youth and age-adjusted BRFSS/adults) by sex and data source, Utah, 2021 (YRBS) and 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020 (BRFSS)
NotesAdult/BRFSS and youth/YRBS physical abuse data are each collected with different questions that include different time frames. The physical abuse question utilized in the YRBS has only been asked one time in 2021, while the BRFSS question has been asked in 2013, 2016, 2018, and 2020.
Data Interpretation IssuesBRFSS (Adults) Not including spanking, (before age 18), how often did a parent or adult in your home ever hit, beat, kick, or physically hurt you in any way? Would you say? (Possible answers: Never, Once, More than once) YRBS (Youth) During the past 12 months, how many times has a parent or other adult in your home hit, beat, kicked, or physically hurt you in any way? (Possible answers: 0, 1, 2 or 3, 4 or 5, or 6+ times) Response options from both surveys were dichotomized into whether or not physical abuse occurred at all. The responses are subjective, however, the subjective reality is what seems to matter when considering the potential for long-term negative impacts.
- by grade/age-group, Utah, 2021 (YRBS) and 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020 (BRFSS)
- by race/ethnicity, Utah, 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020
- by sexual orientation, Utah, 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020
- by disability type, Utah, 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020
- by education, Utah, 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020
- by income, Utah, 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020
- by local health district, Utah, 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020
- by small area, Utah, 2013, 2016, 2018, 2020
DefinitionSelf-reported child physical abuse data is retrospective data collected from adults via the Utah BRFSS Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Module and youth via the Utah YRBS tier 2 ACEs and Positive Childhood Experiences (PCEs) questionnaire. Adult prevalence is looking retrospectively at their whole childhood (<18), while youth prevalence only looks back at the previous 12 months.
NumeratorThe number of youth or adults who indicated at least one instance of physical abuse on the YRBS (2021) or BRFSS (2013, 2016, 2018, 2020).
DenominatorThe total number of youth or adults who provided any response to the physical abuse question on the YRBS (2021) or BRFSS (2013, 2016, 2018, 2020).
Healthy People Objective IVP-38:Reduce nonfatal child maltreatment
U.S. Target: 8.5 maltreatment victims per 1,000 children
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?When comparing BRFSS data, the prevalence of physical child abuse in Utah is higher than nationally (21.4% or ~1 in 5 vs 17.9% or ~1 in 6). National prevalence comes from a 2018 Merrick, et al. study that included 2011-2014 BRFSS data from 23 states, while Utah prevalence is from the ACEs Module included in the Utah BRFSS in 2013, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Source: Merrick, M.T., Ford, D.C., Ports, K. A., Guinn, A. S. (2018). Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences From the 2011-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 23 States. JAMA Pediatrics, 172(11), 1038-1044.
Evidence-based PracticesPromote safe stable nurturing relationships and environments for all children by: *Strengthen economic support for families *Strengthen social norms to connect with and support parents and youth *Enhance parenting skills to promote healthy child development *Promote quality care and education early in life *Intervene to lessen harm and prevent future risk
Page Content Updated On 10/07/2022, Published on 11/14/2022