Important Facts for Immunizations - Pneumonia, Adults
DefinitionPercentage of adults 65+ who reported receiving a pneumococcal vaccination at any point in their lifetime.
NumeratorNumber of survey respondents age 65+ who reported receiving a pneomococcal vaccine anytime during their life.
DenominatorNumber of survey respondents age 65+.
Why Is This Important?Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria that can spread from person to person through lose contact. It can cause ear infections, and it can also lead to more serious infections of the lungs (pneumonia), blood (bacteremia), and covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Anyone can get pneumococcal disease, but children under two years of age and adults aged 65 years and older, people with certain medical conditions, and cigarette smokers are at the highest risk. Before there was a vaccine, the United States saw: *more than 700 cases of meningitis *about 13,000 blood infections *about 5 million ear infections *about 200 deaths [[br]] Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs is not as effective as it used to be, because some strains of pneumococcal are resistant to these drugs. This makes prevention of the disease, through vaccine even more important^1^. [[br]] [[br]] ====Pneumococcal Vaccines==== There are two pneumococcal vaccines that are licensed for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): * pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 or Prevnar 13) * pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23 or Pneumovax23)[[br]] [[br]] The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is recommended for: * all babies and children younger than two years old * all adults age 65 years and older * people with certain illnesses (sickle cell disease; HIV infection; diabetes; immune compromising conditions; nephrotic syndrome; chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease; or damaged/absent spleen) * people with compromised immune systems (including people with HIV) * those with cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid leaks * individuals who smoke cigarettes[[br]] [[br]] The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is recommended for: * all adults 65 years or older * people 2 through 64 with chronic illnesses (sickle cell disease; HIV infection; diabetes; immune compromising conditions; nephrotic syndrome; chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease; or damaged/absent spleen) * those with cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid leaks * individuals 19 through 64 who smoke cigarettes [[br]] ====Is it necessary to receive booster doses of pneumococcal vaccine?==== Those who should get a booster include: * people age 65 and older who received the vaccine before age 65, if more than five years have passed * people who have received a transplant * people with chronic kidney disease * people with compromised immune systems [[br]] Adults who are 65 years or older and who have not previously received PCV13, should receive a dose of PCV13 first, followed 6 to 12 months later by a dose of PPSV23. If someone has already received one or more doses of PPSV23, the dose of PCV13 should be given at least 1 year after the most recent dose of PPSV23^2^. A 2006 study published in the medical journal Clinical Infectious Diseases found that hospital patients who received the pneumococcal vaccine were 40 to 70 percent less likely to die than unvaccinated patients. In the study, vaccinated patients had a lower risk of respiratory failure, kidney failure, heart attack, and other complications. Vaccinated patients in the study also spent an average of two fewer days in the hospital^3^.[[br]] [[br]] ---- 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "Pneumococcal Conjugate (PCV13) VIS. Retrieved from: [https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html] [[br]] 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ''Pneumococcal Vaccination: Who Needs It?'' Retrieved from: [https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/pneumo/public/index.html][[br]] 3. Vila-Crcoles, et al. Protective Effects of the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in the Elderly Population: The EVAN-65 Study. ''Clinical Infectious Diseases''. Retrieved from: [http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/7/860.full]
Healthy People Objective IID-13.1:Increase the percentage of noninstitutionalized adults aged 65 years and older adults who are vaccinated against pneumococcal disease
U.S. Target: 90.0 percent