Important Facts for Immunizations - Recommended Immunizations by Age 24 Months
DefinitionChildren aged 24 months who received the recommended vaccines (4 DTaP, 3 Polio, 1 MMR, 3 Hep B, Hib full series, 1 Varicella, and 4 PCV).
NumeratorNumber of survey respondents aged 24 months that have received at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of Polio, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hep B, 3 or 4 doses of Hib (depending on product type), 1 dose of Varicella, and 4 Pneumococcal.
DenominatorTotal survey respondents aged 24 months.
Data Interpretation IssuesThe National Immunization Survey (NIS) is conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and uses a random-digit-dialing sample of landline and cellular telephone numbers to find households throughout the U.S. with children who are or will be 19-35 months within a few weeks of being selected to participate in the survey. Data are used to monitor vaccination coverage among 2-year-old children at the national, state, selected local levels, and some in U.S. territories. They ask parents or guardians to tell them the vaccines (with dates) that appear on the child's "shot card" kept in the home, and they also collect demographic and socioeconomic information. At the end of the interview, they ask for permission to contact the child's vaccination providers. Vaccine providers are then contacted by mail to verify each child's vaccinations. The NIS uses a nationally representative sample, and provides estimates of coverage that are weighted to represent the entire population, nationally, and by region, state, and selected large metro areas. The large sample size (approximately 15,000) allows them to stratify (that is, subdivide) the data so that they can examine vaccination rates among different groups, for instance by income level, race, education level of mothers, and other factors. In previous years NIS Child data was reported for 19-35 month old children by survey year. However, in 2019 NIS began reporting immunization estimates based on the birth year of respondents. At the time of the change, the birth year estimates were made available back to birth year 2013 and are displayed in an accompanying data view in this Indicator Report.
Why Is This Important?Immunizations are the most cost-effective health prevention measures. Development of vaccinations had been cited by the U.S. Public Health Service as one of the Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century^1^. Vaccines play an essential role in reducing and eliminating disease. By two years of age, it is recommended that all children should have received 4 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), 3 doses of polio, 1 dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), 3 doses of Hepatitis B, full series of ''Haemophilus influenzae'' type B (Hib) (3 of 4 doses depending on product type received), 1 dose of Varicella, and 4 doses of pneumococcal vaccine. This recommendation is referred to in shorthand as "4:3:1:3:3:1:4." [[br]][[br]] ---- 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1999). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Impact of vaccines universally recommended for children -- United States 1990-1998. ''Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,'' Vol. 48, (12);243-248. Atlanta, GA: author.
Healthy People Objective IID-7:Achieve and maintain effective vaccination coverage levels for universally recommended vaccines among young children
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category