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Complete Health Indicator Report of Births from Unintended Pregnancies

Definition

Percentage of Utah women with live births who reported their most recent pregnancy was unintended.

Numerator

Number of unintended births among Utah women.

Denominator

Number of Utah women with a live birth.

Data Interpretation Issues

A stratified random sampling approach is used in selecting women 2-4 months postpartum to participate in PRAMS. The data are weighted by the CDC to represent the birth population for that year, adjusted for sampling probabilities, nonresponse, and noncoverage. Each strata must achieve a weighted response rate of 55% or it is not considered representative of that population. See the PRAMS website at [http://www.cdc.gov/prams/methodology.htm] for more detailed information on PRAMS and its methodology.

Why Is This Important?

In the United States, unintended pregnancy is a major public health problem. Unintended pregnancy is a general term that includes pregnancies a woman reports were either mistimed or unwanted at the time of conception. Women with unintended pregnancies are less likely to seek early prenatal care or receive adequate prenatal care, they are more likely to smoke or drink during pregnancy, and are less likely to initiate or maintain breastfeeding.

Other Objectives

Utah's 42 Community Health Indicators Similar to HP2030 Objective FP-1: Reduce the proportion of unintended pregnancies Similar to HP2030 Objective FP-10: Increase the proportion of women at risk for unintended pregnancy who use effective birth control.

How Are We Doing?

During the years 2016 - 2018, 21.2% of women reported that their birth resulted from an unintended pregnancy. Contraceptive failure rates vary between methods used but are very low when used correctly. A high rate of contraceptive failure signals the need to increase education, services, and coverage of methods of long-acting reversible contraception that may be less prone to human error.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

National PRAMS data in 2016 and 2017, the latest data available, show that 25.7% of women reported that their birth resulted from unintended pregnancy.

What Is Being Done?

To reduce unplanned pregnancies, public health efforts may include: Health Education: Increase knowledge of human reproduction, conception, and proper use of available contraceptive methods; and promote optimal spacing of pregnancies for healthy maternal and infant outcomes. Women's health and maternal health information and education are available from the Utah Department of Health's Maternal and Infant Health Program at https://mihp.utah.gov/. Preconception and interpregnancy health information are available from the Utah Department of Health at http://poweryourlife.org/. Follow Power Your Life on: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/poweryourlifeutah/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/poweryourlifeut or @poweryourlifeut Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/poweryourlifeut Access to family planning services: Family planning services are available in Utah from several sources: community health centers, Planned Parenthood Association of Utah clinics, Family Planning Elevated, and private providers. Utah law requires unmarried minors' parental consent to obtain contraception information and services from community health centers and clinics. A 2018 Utah law allows pharmacies to dispense three contraception types - pills, patch, or ring - through a standing order signed by the Utah Department of Health's executive director. Women 18 years and older can go to any participating pharmacy to receive her pills, patch, or ring directly from the pharmacist. For more information and to see a list of participating pharmacies, see https://mihp.utah.gov/birthcontrol. As of August 1, 2012, non-grandfathered plans must provide coverage for preventive women's health care, including contraception and counseling, without cost-sharing. Medicaid also provides family planning counseling and FDA-approved contraceptive methods without cost-sharing.

Evidence-based Practices

Various studies have indicated that the use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) devices such as Implants and Intrauterine Devices (IUD) effectively lower the incidence of unplanned pregnancy in population and clinic settings.

Available Services

Family planning services are available in Utah from several sources: community health centers, Planned Parenthood Association of Utah clinics, Family Planning Elevated, and private providers. Utah law requires unmarried minors' parental consent to obtain contraception information and services from community health centers and clinics. A 2018 Utah law allows pharmacies to dispense three contraception types ? pills, patch, or ring ? through a standing order signed by the Utah Department of Health's executive director. Women 18 years and older can go to any participating pharmacy to receive her pills, patch, or ring directly from the pharmacist. For more information and to see a list of participating pharmacies, see https://mihp.utah.gov/birthcontrol. As of August 1, 2012, non-grandfathered plans and Medicaid provide coverage for preventive women's health care, including contraception and counseling, without cost-sharing. Women's health and maternal health information and education are available from the Utah Department of Health's Maternal and Infant Health Program at https://mihp.utah.gov/. Preconception and interpregnancy health information are available from the Utah Department of Health at http://poweryourlife.org/. Follow Power Your Life on: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/poweryourlifeutah/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/poweryourlifeut or @poweryourlifeut Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/poweryourlifeut


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

Women less than 20 years of age, those with less than a high school education, race other than White, Hispanic ethnicity, being unmarried, annual income less than $15,000, no health insurance or Medicaid before pregnancy, smoked or drank in three months before pregnancy, and those who had a baby within 20 months of the current pregnancy are more likely to report an unintended pregnancy.

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

Family planning services are available in Utah from several sources: community health centers, Planned Parenthood Association of Utah clinics, Family Planning Elevated, and private providers. Utah law requires unmarried minors' parental consent to obtain contraception information and services from community health centers and clinics. A 2018 Utah law allows pharmacies to dispense three contraception types - pills, patch, or ring - through a standing order signed by the Utah Department of Health's executive director. Women 18 years and older can go to any participating pharmacy to receive her pills, patch, or ring directly from the pharmacist. For more information and to see a list of participating pharmacies, see https://mihp.utah.gov/birthcontrol. As of August 1, 2012, non-grandfathered plans must provide coverage for preventive women's health care, including contraception and counseling, without cost-sharing. Medicaid also provides family planning counseling and FDA-approved contraceptive methods without cost-sharing.

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

Having an unintended pregnancy can contribute to short inter-pregnancy spacing, the timing between a live birth and the next pregnancy, which increases the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Research has shown that short intervals (less than 18 months) and long intervals (60+ months) were associated with a higher risk of negative health outcomes for mothers and babies. In 2019, 25.7% of Utah mothers did not wait the recommended 18 months to become pregnant after their last birth. In addition, unintended pregnancy can contribute to an increase in the rate of abortions and late entry into prenatal care. Women with inadequate care due to late entry are more likely to deliver a low birth weight baby.



Graphical Data Views

Births From Unintended Pregnancies by Local Health District, Utah, 2016-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Local Health DistrictPercentage of Women With Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 14
Bear River15.0%9.7%20.2%
Central35.8%23.4%48.2%
Davis County21.6%16.9%26.3%
Salt Lake County22.1%19.5%24.8%
San Juan****
Southeast22.0%8.0%36.1%*
Southwest22.0%16.0%28.0%
Summit18.0%2.7%33.4%*
Tooele25.8%13.6%38.0%
TriCounty24.6%14.7%34.4%
Utah County17.4%14.4%20.5%
Wasatch****
Weber-Morgan24.9%19.1%30.7%
State of Utah21.2%19.7%22.8%

Data Notes

Question: "Thinking back to just before you got pregnant, how did you feel about becoming pregnant?" (check one answer). Answer Options: I wanted to be pregnant sooner, I wanted to be pregnant later, I wanted to be pregnant then, I didn't want to be pregnant then or at any time in the future, or I wasn't sure what I wanted. Women who wanted to be pregnant later or didn't want to be pregnant were categorized as having an unintended pregnancy.   [[br]] [[br]]*Use caution when interpreting Southeast, and Summit as the estimates have a relative standard error greater than 30% which does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. ** Wasatch and San Juan have been suppressed as the estimate have a relative standard error greater than 50% which does not meet UDOH standards for reliability.

Data Source

Utah Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), Utah Department of Health


Women Who Reported Their Most Recent Pregnancy Was Unintended by Age Group, Utah, 2016-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Age GroupPercentage of Women With Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 7
17 or Under58.8%44.7%71.5%
18-1945.4%36.6%54.6%
20-2430.6%27.0%34.5%
25-2919.5%17.0%22.4%
30-3416.4%13.7%19.5%
35-3915.2%11.9%19.3%
40+10.8%5.3%20.8%*

Data Notes

Question: "Thinking back to just before you got pregnant, how did you feel about becoming pregnant?" (check one answer). Answer Options: I wanted to be pregnant sooner, I wanted to be pregnant later, I wanted to be pregnant then, I didn't want to be pregnant then or at any time in the future, or I wasn't sure what I wanted. Women who wanted to be pregnant later or didn't want to be pregnant were categorized as having an unintended pregnancy.   [[br]] [[br]] * Use caution when interpreting the estimate for the 40+ age category. The estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. [[br]]

Data Source

Utah Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), Utah Department of Health


Women Who Reported Their Most Recent Pregnancy Was Unintended by Year, Utah, 1999-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

MethodologyYearPercentage of Women With Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 18
Old Methodology200134.5%31.9%37.1%
Old Methodology200232.5%29.4%35.5%
Old Methodology200333.5%31.9%35.2%
Old Methodology200431.4%29.1%33.7%
Old Methodology200533.9%32.4%35.4%
Old Methodology200634.2%31.8%36.6%
Old Methodology200730.9%28.6%33.2%
Old Methodology200833.0%30.7%35.3%
Old Methodology200933.6%31.1%36.1%
Old Methodology201032.4%29.8%35.0%
Old Methodology201131.8%29.0%34.5%
New Methodology201224.7%22.3%27.4%
New Methodology201322.8%20.3%25.7%
New Methodology201422.5%19.9%25.1%
New Methodology201521.3%18.7%23.9%
New Methodology201620.3%17.7%22.9%
New Methodology201722.2%19.5%25.0%
New Methodology201821.2%18.6%24.1%

Data Notes

Question: "Thinking back to just before you got pregnant, how did you feel about becoming pregnant?" (check one answer). Answer Options: I wanted to be pregnant sooner, I wanted to be pregnant later, I wanted to be pregnant then, I didn't want to be pregnant then or at any time in the future, or I wasn't sure what I wanted. Women who wanted to be pregnant later or didn't want to be pregnant were categorized as having an unintended pregnancy.   [[br]] [[br]]Beginning in 2012, the PRAMS survey added the response "I wasn't sure what I wanted". The addition of this response may have diluted the percentage of responses in the other categories, so data for 2012 and later is not comparable to previous years.

Data Source

Utah Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), Utah Department of Health


Women Who Reported Their Most Recent Pregnancy Was Unintended by Race and Ethnicity, Utah, 2016-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

EthnicityPercentage of Women With Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 4
Hispanic or Latino29.3%25.6%33.4%
White, Non-Hispanic18.4%16.7%20.2%
Other, Non-Hispanic34.4%27.2%42.4%
All Utahns21.2%19.7%22.8%

Data Notes

Question: "Thinking back to just before you got pregnant, how did you feel about becoming pregnant?" (check one answer). Answer Options: I wanted to be pregnant sooner, I wanted to be pregnant later, I wanted to be pregnant then, I didn't want to be pregnant then or at any time in the future, or I wasn't sure what I wanted. Women who wanted to be pregnant later or didn't want to be pregnant were categorized as having an unintended pregnancy.

Data Source

Utah Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), Utah Department of Health

References and Community Resources

[https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/unintendedpregnancy/index.htm] Affordable Care Act Expands Prevention Coverage for Women's Health and Well-Being: [https://www.hrsa.gov/womens-guidelines/index.html] Preventing Unintended Pregnancies By Providing No-Cost Contraception (Piepert, 2012): [https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Fulltext/2012/12000/Preventing_Unintended_Pregnancies_by_Providing.7.aspx] Preventing Unplanned Pregnancy: Lessons from the States (Sawhill & Guyot, 2019): [https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Preventing-Unplanned-Pregnancy-2.pdf] Increasing Use of Contraceptive Implants and Intrauterine Devices To Reduce Unintended Pregnancy (ACOG, 2015): [https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2015/10/increasing-access-to-contraceptive-implants-and-intrauterine-devices-to-reduce-unintended-pregnancy]

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

Page Content Updated On 10/16/2020, Published on 01/05/2021
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 19 September 2021 22:50:51 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Tue, 5 Jan 2021 16:56:45 MST