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Complete Health Indicator Report of Student Injuries

Definition

The student injury rate is reported as the number of student injuries among kindergarten through 12th-graders in Utah schools per 1,000 students.

Numerator

The number of public school student injuries that meet criteria.

Denominator

The number of public school students enrolled in school.

Data Interpretation Issues

School injuries involving pre-schoolers and specialized schools, such as night classes, alternative schools, and special education schools, are not included. School years are defined as being in session between August 1 and July 31. No adjustment for year-round schools was made. School enrollment numbers for K-12 grades exclude self-contained special education, homebound, and hospitalized students. Some Utah school districts are better than others at reporting injuries, which may make those schools appear to have more student injuries. In addition, student injury reporting forms are not submitted to the Violence and Injury Prevention Program at regular intervals, therefore, injury numbers from the previous school years may increase as forms are submitted. An online database was initiated in 2011, administrators now complete electronic forms, which are reviewed by the Violence and Injury Prevention Program.

Why Is This Important?

The Student Injury Reporting system is a critical piece of Utah injury prevention efforts because it gives injury professionals timely data that identify where, when, how, and why students get injured at school. By using this information, education officials can pinpoint risk factors at individual schools and develop safety guidelines and prevention programs. School-related injuries are a significant public health problem. Appropriate interventions and prevention programs can minimize the physical and financial impact of injury on the individual, family, school, and community.

Healthy People Objective IVP-26:

Reduce sports and recreation injuries
U.S. Target: 41.9 injuries per 1,000 population

Other Objectives

Healthy People 2020 Objective AH-5.6: [[br]] Decrease school absenteeism among adolescents due to illness or injury [[br]] *'''U.S. Target:''' To be determined [[br]] [[br]] Healthy People 2010 Objective IVP-27: [[br]] Increase the proportion of public and private schools that require students to wear appropriate protective gear when engaged in school-sponsored physical activities [[br]] [[br]] *IVP-27.1: Physical education **'''U.S. Target:''' 84.5 percent [[br]] *IVP-27.2: Intramural activities or physical activity clubs **'''U.S. Target:''' 94.4 percent [[br]] Healthy People 2020 Objective IVP-34: [[br]] Reduce physical fighting among adolescents [[br]] *'''U.S. Target:''' 28.4 percent *'''State Target:''' 25.4 percent [[br]] Healthy People 2020 Objective IVP-35: [[br]] Reduce bullying among adolescents *'''U.S. Target:''' 17.9 percent *'''State Target:''' 25.4 percent [[br]] Healthy People 2020 Objective IVP-36: [[br]] Reduce weapon carrying by adolescents on school property *'''U.S. Target:''' 4.6 percent *'''State Target:''' 14.4 percent

How Are We Doing?

School injuries have decreased since 2012-13, and the rate of student injuries has remained fairly stable since 2014-15. From school years 2015-16 to to 2017-18, 6th graders had the highest percent of student injuries (10.2%), this trend has remained consistent since 2007-08. Among female students, 6th graders had the highest number of injuries (9.6%). Among all male students, most student injuries occurred in either 6th or 8th grade (10.5%). During this time frame, females accounted for 39.0% of the injuries while males accounted for 61.0%. Males had more injuries than females in 4th-8th and 12th grades. Injuries begin to decline among high school students. The majority of elementary school students (K-6th grade) are injured during lunch recess (32.8%), and during recess (34.7%) while the majority of secondary school students (7th-12th grades) are injured during PE class (34.7%) and during class time (20.7%). A possible fracture or broken bone is the most common type of injury in both elementary and secondary schools.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

On a national level, middle and high school students sustain more injuries than elementary school students. In Utah and across the nation, most grade school injuries occur on the playground and playfield. In contrast, sports injuries take the lead in secondary schools, as students enter competitive sports. It's also known that coaches tend to report injuries less often, making those kinds of activities appear safer than they may actually be. During the school year 2017-18, the reported injury rate was 8.9 per 1,000 students (CI: 8.7-9.1).

What Is Being Done?

The Utah Department of Health (UDOH) began investigating school-related injures in 1982. However, since there was no uniform or standardized system for reporting and collecting student injury data, it was not possible to determine the frequency, nature, severity, or contributing factors of these injuries. Together with the Utah State Office of Education and local school districts, the UDOH developed the Student Injury Reporting (SIR) system to better identify school injury problems, implement interventions, and prevent injuries. The UDOH Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) is the current administrator of SIR. SIR was one of the first statewide school injury reporting systems developed in the United States. In 2012, the VIPP established an electronic Student Injury Reporting system where school administrators are able to directly enter their student injuries. Since the 2012-13 school year, a total of 30,250 student injuries have been reported through the SIRs, averaging 5,042 per year. But because there is no law that requires schools to report injuries, the VIPP estimates that the true number may actually be twice as high. The following activities are underway to make Utahns more aware of the problem of school injury and of the importance of prevention: [[br]] # School districts can query school level data on a secure IBIS-Q system # Student injury data is queryable at the state level on [[a href="query/selection/studentinj/StudentInjSelection.html" IBIS-Q]] # Publication of articles in professional journals using school injury data # Continuing education and training on the web-based student injury reporting system for personnel responsible for completing school injury forms # Educating all school district superintendents regarding data findings # Maintaining an accurate and current school injury database # Providing current data to all who are interested

Evidence-based Practices

The following are resources for preventing student injuries: *Student Injury Reporting System: [https://sir.health.utah.gov/] *CDC Brain Injury Basics: [https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/] **[[a href='https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/youthsports/index.html' Youth Sports]] **[[a href='https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/highschoolsports/index.html' School Sports]] **[[a href='https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/schools/nurses.html' School Nurses]]

Available Services

VIPP can provide data, fact sheets, prevention tips, and other resources on a wide variety of school-related injury topics. Violence and Injury Prevention Program[[br]] 801-538-6864[[br]] [http://health.utah.gov/vipp/]

Health Program Information

The mission of the Violence and Injury Prevention Program is to promote the health of Utah citizens by working to reduce the incidence and severity of injuries and resultant deaths. Its goals are to a) focus prevention efforts on reducing intentional and unintentional injury, b) conduct education aimed at increasing awareness and changing behaviors that contribute to the occurrence of injury, c) strengthen local health department capacity to conduct local injury prevention programs, d) promote legislation, policy changes, and enforcement that will reduce injury hazards and increase safe behaviors, e) collaborate with private and public partners, and f) improve the Utah Department of Health capacity to collect mortality and morbidity data from multiple sources and conduct injury epidemiology for use in prevention planning, implementation, and evaluation.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

Pre-adolescents ages 10 to 14 are the group at highest risk of injuries. Sources: Laflamme L, Menckel E, Aldenberg E. School-injury determinants and characteristics: developing an investigation instrument from a literature review. Accid Anal Prev. 1998;30:481-495.

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Risk Factors

In younger students, it has been found that playground injuries are more common while organized sports become more likely to cause injuries as age increases. There are many factors that put students at risk for injuries, such as poor monitoring and supervision of children, risk-taking behaviors among students, poor decision making skills among students, inadequately maintained equipment, lack of staff awareness of injury prevention, lack of athletic conditioning, and lack of knowledge of appropriate safety procedures.

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

According to a 1998 study in the American Journal of Public Health, approximately 3.7 million students aged 5 to 19 are injured at school severely enough to require medical attention or to limit activity. Source: Miller TR, Spicer RS. How safe are our schools? Am J Public Health. 1998;88:413-418.

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Number of Student Injuries per 1,000 Students by School Year, Utah, 2000-01 to 2009-10 and 2012-13 to 2017-18

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

MethodologySchool YearStudent Injuries per 1,000 StudentsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 16
Old Methodology00-0113.613.313.96,448474,732
Old Methodology01-0213.313.013.66,341477,160
Old Methodology02-0313.012.713.36,232479,617
Old Methodology03-0413.413.113.86,493483,685
Old Methodology04-0512.412.112.76,054489,445
Old Methodology05-0612.011.712.35,973489,484
Old Methodology06-0711.711.412.05,892504,792
Old Methodology07-0811.711.412.06,035515,457
Old Methodology08-0911.311.011.65,926523,644
Old Methodology09-1010.19.810.45,346529,107
New Methodology12-1310.19.810.45,553550,184
New Methodology13-147.47.17.64,101557,651
New Methodology14-158.48.18.64,696560,718
New Methodology15-169.69.39.85,425566,387
New Methodology16-179.39.09.55,307572,982
New Methodology17-188.98.79.15,136576,781

Data Notes

The criteria for reporting school injuries is that the injury caused the loss of at least one-half day of school and/or warranted medical attention and treatment from a school nurse, physician, or other health care provider. Elementary schools consist of Kindergarten through 6th grade. Secondary schools consist of 7th through 12th grade (Middle, Junior, and High Schools).   [[br]]Old Methodology = data entry from paper forms to database[[br]]New Methodology = online database

Data Sources

  • Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion, Violence and Injury Prevention Program
  • Utah State Office of Education


Percentage of Student Injuries by Sex and Grade, Utah, 2015-16 to 2017-18

::chart - missing::

Males vs. FemalesGrade in SchoolPercentage of Student Injuries
Record Count: 39
MaleKindergarten4.1%
Male1st7.5%
Male2nd6.6%
Male3rd7.2%
Male4th8.3%
Male5th9.7%
Male6th10.5%
Male7th9.4%
Male8th10.5%
MaleGrade 99.0%
MaleGrade 107.0%
MaleGrade 115.4%
MaleGrade 124.9%
FemaleKindergarten4.4%
Female1st9.1%
Female2nd8.0%
Female3rd7.9%
Female4th7.8%
Female5th8.2%
Female6th9.6%
Female7th7.6%
Female8th8.9%
FemaleGrade 99.3%
FemaleGrade 107.9%
FemaleGrade 116.6%
FemaleGrade 124.6%
TotalKindergarten4.2%
Total1st8.1%
Total2nd7.2%
Total3rd7.5%
Total4th8.1%
Total5th9.1%
Total6th10.2%
Total7th8.7%
Total8th9.9%
TotalGrade 99.1%
TotalGrade 107.3%
TotalGrade 115.9%
TotalGrade 124.8%

Data Notes

The criteria for reporting school injuries is that the injury caused the loss of at least one-half day of school and/or warranted medical attention and treatment from a school nurse, physician, or other health care provider. Elementary schools consist of Kindergarten through 6th grade. Secondary schools consist of 7th through 12th grade (Middle, Junior, and High Schools).

Data Source

Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion, Violence and Injury Prevention Program


Percentage of Student Injuries by School Period and School Type, Utah, 2015-16 to 2017-18

::chart - missing::

Elem vs Secondary SchoolsSchool PeriodPercentage of Student Injuries
Record Count: 30
Elementary SchoolsBefore/After School9.7%
Elementary SchoolsAthletic Events0.2%
Elementary SchoolsClass Change0.8%
Elementary SchoolsClass Time8.6%
Elementary SchoolsField Trip1.5%
Elementary SchoolsLunch2.5%
Elementary SchoolsLunch Recess32.8%
Elementary SchoolsRecess34.7%
Elementary SchoolsPE Class8.4%
Elementary SchoolsOther0.9%
Secondary SchoolsBefore/After School9.4%
Secondary SchoolsAthletic Events15.7%
Secondary SchoolsClass Change6.0%
Secondary SchoolsClass Time20.7%
Secondary SchoolsField Trip0.8%
Secondary SchoolsLunch5.7%
Secondary SchoolsLunch Recess5.3%
Secondary SchoolsRecess0.1%
Secondary SchoolsPE Class34.7%
Secondary SchoolsOther1.6%

Data Notes

The criteria for reporting school injuries is that the injury caused the loss of at least one-half day of school and/or warranted medical attention and treatment from a school nurse, physician, or other health care provider. Elementary schools consist of Kindergarten through 6th grade. Secondary schools consist of 7th through 12th grade (Middle, Junior, and High Schools).

Data Source

Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion, Violence and Injury Prevention Program


Percentage of Student Injuries by Injury Type, Utah, 2015-16 to 2017-18

::chart - missing::

Injury TypePercentage of Student InjuriesNote
Record Count: 16
Abrasion/Scrape1.9%
Bump/Bruise/Contusion9.5%
Burn/Scald0.5%
Possible Concussion10.9%
Cut/Laceration16.7%
Possible Dislocation3.0%
Possible Fracture/Broken34.6%
Loss of Consciousness1.0%
No Pulse/Heartbeat****
Not Breathing0.0%*
Pain/Tenderness6.5%
Puncture1.2%
Shortness of Breath0.6%
Sprain/Strain/Tear10.8%
Swelling/Inflammation2.3%
Other0.5%

Data Notes

The criteria for reporting school injuries is that the injury caused the loss of at least one-half day of school and/or warranted medical attention and treatment from a school nurse, physician, or other health care provider. Elementary schools consist of Kindergarten through 6th grade. Secondary schools consist of 7th through 12th grade (Middle, Junior, and High Schools).   [[br]][[br]] Student injury type is not doctor diagnosed. Injury type is determined at the time of the injury by the Student Injury Reporting System administrator at each school. [[br]][[br]] ^ ^*Use caution in interpreting; the estimate has a coefficient of variation >30% and is therefore deemed unreliable by UDOH standards. **The estimate has been suppressed because the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication.

Data Source

Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion, Violence and Injury Prevention Program

References and Community Resources

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control[[br]] [http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/playgr.htm] Safe Child [[br]] [https://safechild.org/] Kids Health [[br]] [https://kidshealth.org/] Children's Safety Network [[br]] [https://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org/] National SAFE KIDS Campaign [[br]] [https://www.safekids.org/] National Center for Sports Safety [[br]] [https://sportssafety.org/]

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

Page Content Updated On 06/18/2019, Published on 08/05/2019
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 18 November 2019 19:34:54 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Mon, 5 Aug 2019 11:18:51 MDT