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Complete Health Indicator Report of Infant Mortality

Definition

Number of infants who died before their first birthday (under 365 days), per 1,000 live births.

Numerator

Number of infants who died before their first birthday.

Denominator

Total live births.

Why Is This Important?

The infant mortality rate is an important measure of a nation's health and a worldwide indicator of health status and social well-being. The top four causes of infant mortality in Utah are perinatal conditions (including preterm birth), birth defects, medical conditions of the infant, and sudden unexpected infant death (SUID).

Healthy People Objective MICH-1.3:

Reduce the rate of all infant deaths (within 1 year)
U.S. Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births
State Target: 4.6 infant deaths per 1,000 live births

Other Objectives

Reduce the racial disparity in infant mortality rates.

How Are We Doing?

The infant mortality rate has declined throughout the past 30 years both locally and nationally. The Utah infant mortality rate declined in 2018 to 5.4 per 1,000 live births after increasing for the past three years. During 2018, 255 Utah infants died during their first year of life.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

State vs U.S.:[[br]] Historically, the Utah infant mortality rate has been lower than the national rate. In 2016, the Utah infant mortality rate was 5.4 per 1,000 live births compared to the U.S. rate of 5.9 per 1,000 live births (CDC). In 2017, the Utah and estimated U.S. rate were comparable at 5.8 each (CIA World Factbook). In 2018, the Utah rate was 5.4 and the 2018 U.S. rate has not yet been published. U.S. vs. Other Countries:[[br]] According to 2017 estimates, the U.S. ranked 56 of 225 countries, meaning that 55 countries had lower infant mortality rates than the U.S., including Cuba, Greece, and Bosnia. The estimated U.S. rate for 2017 was 5.8 per 1,000 live births (CIA World Factbook).

What Is Being Done?

The UDOH Maternal and Infant Health Program is currently 1) reviewing data obtained from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the Perinatal Mortality Review (PMR) program to identify modifiable risk factors for infant mortality and develop appropriate interventions; 2) making health information available on-line for researchers, students, health care professionals and the general public to increase awareness of factors associated with infant death (i.e. the Indicator Based Information System [IBIS] and the Maternal and Infant Health Program websites); 3) promoting preconception and interconception health care for all women of childbearing age; 4) working with community partners and health professionals to disseminate information on 17P, a drug to help prevent recurrent preterm birth; and 5) collaborating with the Office of Health Disparities Reduction on targeted interventions toward decreasing infant mortality in disparate populations.

Evidence-based Practices

The Utah Department of Health participates in the Utah Women and Newborn Quality Collaborative (UWNQC), a statewide perinatal quality collaborative. This workgroup of clinicians and public health professionals engages in development and measurement of health care quality indicators and quality improvement projects in the areas of maternal and neonatal health issues. There are a number of other states engaged in such collaboratives, including Iowa, Maryland, Ohio, California, and Tennessee. The UWNQC is currently working on decreasing preterm birth, standardizing treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome, and identifying and addressing maternal and neonatal safety issues related to out-of-hospital birth in Utah.

Available Services

'''Utah Women and Newborn Quality Collaborative:''' [http://uwnqc.org][[br]] Provider and patient education to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. '''Power Your Life website:''' [http://www.poweryourlife.org][[br]] Public education about how to be at optimal health prior to pregnancy.[[br]] [[br]] Social media for Power Your Life include:[[br]] *Facebook: [http://www.facebook.com/poweryourlifeutah][[br]] *Twitter: @Poweryourlife2[[br]] *Pinterest: [http://www.pinterest.com/poweryourlifeut][[br]] [[br]] '''Utah Tobacco Quit Line:''' 1-888-567-8788 '''Baby Your Baby Hotline:''' 1-800-826-9662[[br]] A resource to answer pregnancy related questions and and locate services for the public. '''MotherToBaby:'''[[br]] Phone - 1-800-822-2229[[br]] Text - 1-855-999-3525[[br]] Email - expertinfo@mothertobaby.org[[br]] [[br]] A service to answer questions about what medications are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[[br]] [[br]] Social media for MotherToBaby include:[[br]] *Facebook: [http://www.facebook.com/MotherToBaby][[br]] *Twitter: @MotherToBaby[[br]] *Pinterest: [http://www.pinterest.com/MotherToBaby][[br]] [[br]] '''Baby Watch Early Intervention Hotline:''' 1-800-961-4226[[br]] Utah network of services for children, birth to three years of age, with developmental delay or disabilities. '''March of Dimes, Utah Chapter:''' [http://www.marchofdimes.org/utah][[br]] The mission of the March of Dimes is to improve the health of babies by preventing birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality.[[br]] *Facebook: [https://www.facebook.com/marchofdimes][[br]] *Twitter: @MarchofDimes[[br]] *YouTube: [https://www.youtube.com/marchofdimes][[br]] [[br]] '''University of Utah Health Care Parent-to-Parent Support Group:''' 1-801-581-2098[[br]] Support Program for families of high risk/critically ill newborns.

Health Program Information

Infant mortality may be reduced by breastfeeding. The "Stepping Up for Utah Babies" Program was developed by the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) and partners to recognize Utah hospitals that have taken steps to promote, protect, educate, and encourage breastfeeding in their facilities. Using a learning collaborative model, hospitals can implement 2, 4, 6, 8, or all 10 of the evidence-based steps to successful breastfeeding identified by the World Health Organization and UNICEF ([https://www.babyfriendlyusa.org/for-facilities/practice-guidelines/10-steps-and-international-code/]). A tool kit was adapted and developed outlining best practices, resources, action plans, and barriers to implementing each of the steps. Hospitals that successfully implement each two step interval (up to 10 steps) will be certified by the UDOH and recognized through media and public celebrations.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

The following population subgroups at higher risk of infant mortality: *Mother's race (Utahns who are Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander) *Mother's age (mothers younger than 19, older than 40) *Mother's low educational attainment (high school diploma or less) *Mother being unmarried

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

The following health care system factors contribute to a higher risk of infant mortality: *Access to prenatal care *No health insurance *Preterm birth

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

The following risk factors contribute to infant mortality: * Maternal inadequate weight gain during pregnancy * Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (obese prior to pregnancy) * Maternal tobacco use * Less than 6 months between pregnancies * Infant birth weight (less than 2,500 g) * Preterm infant * Multiple gestation (e.g. twins)

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

The following outcomes are related to infant mortality: *Costs associated with low birth weight births *Premature births *Maternal and infant mortality and morbidity

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Infant Mortality: Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age, Utah and U.S., 1980-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Utah vs. U.S.YearDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 77
Utah198010.59.511.4
Utah19819.88.810.8
Utah198211.110.012.1
Utah19838.87.89.7
Utah19849.28.210.2
Utah19859.88.710.7
Utah19868.67.69.5
Utah19878.87.99.9
Utah19887.97.18.9
Utah19898.07.18.9
Utah19907.46.58.3
Utah19916.25.47.0
Utah19925.95.26.7
Utah19936.05.26.8
Utah19946.15.36.9
Utah19955.24.55.9
Utah19965.95.26.7
Utah19975.85.16.5
Utah19985.75.06.4
Utah19994.84.25.4
Utah20005.24.55.8
Utah20014.84.25.5
Utah20025.54.86.2
Utah20035.04.45.5
Utah20045.24.65.8
Utah20054.53.95.1
Utah20065.04.45.6
Utah20075.24.65.8
Utah20084.84.25.4
Utah20095.34.75.9
Utah20104.84.25.4
Utah20115.54.96.2
Utah20124.84.25.5
Utah20135.24.55.8
Utah20144.94.35.6
Utah20155.14.55.7
Utah20165.44.86.1
Utah20175.85.26.5
Utah20185.44.86.1
U.S.198012.6
U.S.198111.9
U.S.198211.5
U.S.198311.2
U.S.198410.8
U.S.198510.6
U.S.198610.4
U.S.198710.1
U.S.198810.0
U.S.19899.8
U.S.19909.2
U.S.19918.9
U.S.19928.5
U.S.19938.4
U.S.19948.0
U.S.19957.6
U.S.19967.3
U.S.19977.2
U.S.19987.2
U.S.19997.1
U.S.20006.9
U.S.20016.9
U.S.20026.9
U.S.20036.8
U.S.20046.8
U.S.20056.9
U.S.20066.7
U.S.20076.8
U.S.20086.6
U.S.20096.4
U.S.20106.2
U.S.20116.0
U.S.20126.0
U.S.20136.0
U.S.20145.8
U.S.20155.9
U.S.20165.9
U.S.20175.8

Data Notes

U.S. figures from NVSR Report Deaths: Final Data for 2017

Data Sources

  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births by Leading Causes of Death, Utah, 2009-2018

::chart - missing::

Infant Cause of DeathYearDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsNote
Record Count: 60
Perinatal Conditions20092.6
Perinatal Conditions20102.1
Perinatal Conditions20112.5
Perinatal Conditions20122.0
Perinatal Conditions20132.4
Perinatal Conditions20142.3
Perinatal Conditions20152.1
Perinatal Conditions20162.6
Perinatal Conditions20173.0
Perinatal Conditions20182.7
Congenital Malformations20091.4
Congenital Malformations20101.4
Congenital Malformations20111.4
Congenital Malformations20121.5
Congenital Malformations20131.3
Congenital Malformations20141.5
Congenital Malformations20151.3
Congenital Malformations20161.7
Congenital Malformations20171.5
Congenital Malformations20181.4
SIDS20090.3
SIDS20100.3
SIDS20110.6
SIDS20120.5
SIDS20130.5
SIDS20140.2*
SIDS20150.4
SIDS20160.3
SIDS20170.4
SIDS20180.4
Medical Conditions20090.4
Medical Conditions20100.5
Medical Conditions20110.5
Medical Conditions20120.5
Medical Conditions20130.6
Medical Conditions20140.5
Medical Conditions20150.7
Medical Conditions20160.4
Medical Conditions20170.4
Medical Conditions20180.6
Undetermined20090.2
Undetermined20100.2*
Undetermined20110.1*
Undetermined20120.1*
Undetermined20130.1*
Undetermined20140.2*
Undetermined20150.2*
Undetermined20160.1*
Undetermined20170.3
Undetermined20180.1*
Unintentional/Accidental20090.3
Unintentional/Accidental20100.3
Unintentional/Accidental20110.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20120.1*
Unintentional/Accidental20130.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20140.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20150.3
Unintentional/Accidental20160.1*
Unintentional/Accidental20170.1*
Unintentional/Accidental20180.1*

Data Notes

*Use caution in interpreting, as the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability.

Data Sources

  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health


Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births by County, Utah, 2012-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

CountyDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 30
Beaver8.02.917.3*
Box Elder5.43.77.6
Cache4.53.65.7
Carbon3.21.27.0*
Daggett****
Davis4.74.05.4
Duchesne4.32.27.5
Emery5.41.812.6*
Garfield****
Grand6.12.014.3*
Iron7.45.410.0
Juab5.42.211.0*
Kane7.01.918.1*
Millard4.41.69.6*
Morgan5.42.011.7*
Piute****
Rich****
Salt Lake5.65.26.0
San Juan5.02.19.8*
Sanpete4.82.68.3
Sevier4.72.38.7*
Summit4.72.67.9
Tooele4.12.76.0
Uintah5.53.68.1
Utah5.04.55.5
Wasatch3.92.06.8
Washington4.63.65.8
Wayne****
Weber6.05.17.0
State5.25.05.5

Data Notes

Note: County represents county of infant's residence. *Use caution in interpreting; the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. **The estimate has been suppressed because 1) the relative standard error is greater than 50% or 2) the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication.

Data Sources

  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health


Infant Mortality by Local Health District, Utah, 2016-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Local Health DistrictDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 14
Bear River4.73.46.3
Central4.22.37.1
Davis County5.04.06.2
Salt Lake County6.35.67.0
San Juan****
Southeast5.22.110.6*
Southwest5.23.96.9
Summit4.01.39.2*
Tooele4.12.17.2
TriCounty5.33.08.8
Utah County5.54.76.3
Wasatch3.71.28.6*
Weber-Morgan5.44.27.0
State of Utah5.55.25.9

Data Notes

Note: Local Health District represents local health district of infant's residence. * Use caution in interpreting, as the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. **The estimate has been suppressed because 1) the relative standard error is greater than 50% or 2) the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication.

Data Sources

  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health


Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births by Maternal Race, Utah, 2016-2018

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

RaceDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 6
American Indian/Native Alaskan****
Asian8.25.511.7
Black8.95.513.6
Pacific Islander7.63.913.3
White4.84.45.2
All Races5.45.15.8

Data Notes

**The estimate has been suppressed because 1) the relative standard error is greater than 50% or 2) the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication.tandards for reliability. These data are for the death cohort from 2016-2018.

Data Sources

  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health

References and Community Resources

Maternal and Infant Health Program - Utah Department of Health[[br]] [http://mihp.utah.gov][[br]] [[br]] Maternal and Child Health Bureau - Health Resources and Services Administration[[br]] [http://mchb.hrsa.gov][[br]] [[br]] Reproductive Health - CDC[[br]] [http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/index.htm][[br]] [[br]] March of Dimes[[br]] [http://www.marchofdimes.com/]

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

Page Content Updated On 10/24/2019, Published on 11/19/2019
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 10 July 2020 4:22:57 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:38:47 MST