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Complete Health Indicator Report of Gonorrhea Cases

Definition

Rate of newly reported cases of gonorrhea by date of diagnosis per 100,000 population.

Numerator

Number of newly reported cases of gonorrhea by date of diagnosis.

Denominator

Number of persons in Utah.

Data Interpretation Issues

Reported gonorrhea rates are calculated by dividing the number of cases within the population of interest by the total number of persons within that population, then multiplying by 100,000. It should be noted that because of the relatively small number of gonorrhea infections reported in Utah, rates can be volatile: a small change in the number of cases can noticeably change the rate. This change may look significant, but, statistically, it may not be. Caution is strongly recommended when interpreting small case numbers and rates.

Why Is This Important?

Although much less common than chlamydia infections, gonorrhea, caused by the bacterium ''Neisseria gonorrhoeae'', is a priority public health concern in Utah. Untreated gonorrhea infections can damage the reproductive systems of both males and females. Females with gonorrhea infection are at risk for developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and both men and women may become infertile as a result of untreated gonorrhea infections. Also, susceptibility to infections such as HIV also increases when an individual has gonorrhea. Furthermore, pregnant women with gonorrhea can pass the infection to their infant during delivery, potentially resulting in ophthalmia neonatorum. Gonorrhea can spread to the blood stream and settle in the joints, brain, and heart becoming systemic or known as disseminated gonorrhea. In addition to the cervix and urethra, the rectum and pharynx are also possible sites of gonococcal infection.

How Are We Doing?

Following a doubling of the Utah gonorrhea rate from 2003 to 2006, when the rate peaked at 35.2 cases per 100,000 persons, the Utah gonorrhea rate decreased annually to the lowest reported rate of 9.8 in 2011. From 2011 to 2022, gonorrhea rates increased 830.6% to 91.2 cases per 100,000 persons. In 2022, gonorrhea rates in the state were higher in males (118.4 cases per 100,000 persons) than in females (63.1 cases per 100,000 persons). Rates in females increased 1,242.6% from 2011 to 2022, compared to 694.6% among males during the same time frame. The highest rates of gonorrhea in Utah in 2022 were among males aged 25 to 29 (370.1 cases per 100,000 persons) and males aged 30 to 34 (309.1 cases per 100,000 persons).

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Gonorrhea rates in Utah are well below rates in the U.S. In 2022, the Utah gonorrhea rate ranked 44th highest in the nation. The overall rate for gonorrhea in the U.S. in 2022 was 194.4 cases per 100,000 persons. Nationally in 2022, gonorrhea rates were higher in males (236.3 cases per 100,000 persons) than females (152.1 cases per 100,000 persons). Gonorrhea rates were highest among males aged 20 to 24 (739.4 cases per 100,000 persons) and females aged 20 to 24 (715.1 cases per 100,000 persons). The next highest groups were males aged 25 to 29 (708.7 cases per 100,000 persons) and females aged 15 to 19 (525.7 cases per 100,000 persons). (CDC. [https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/2022/tables/21.htm ''Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance''], 2024)

What Is Being Done?

Persons who test positive for gonorrhea are confidentially interviewed by a disease intervention specialist (DIS) from a local health department (LHD) to educate the patient, ensure proper treatment, and to obtain sexual partner information for follow up. This process potentially prevents the spread of infection and reduces the likelihood of the patient becoming reinfected. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends that patients with gonococcal infections be treated with a mono antibiotic therapy to improve gonorrhea treatment effectiveness, and potentially slow the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Utah Department of Health and Human Services HIV/STD, Elimination, Analysis, Response, and Treatment (HEART) along with LHDs, currently provide STI presentations upon request to a variety of organizations, agencies, and facilities.

Available Services

Some local health districts (LHDs) have STI (sexually transmitted infection) clinics located at their LHD where adolescents can be tested and treated for STIs at minimal or no cost. Planned Parenthood and other community based organizations have locations throughout Utah that also provide STI services at minimal cost. Condoms are available at these locations free of cost. STI presentations are available through the Utah Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) upon request. DHHS also has educational pamphlets available. Utah's consent of minor to treatment law allows adolescents 14 and older to be tested and treated for an STD without the consent of a parent. The exact law can be found here: [https://le.utah.gov/xcode/Title26B/Chapter7/26B-7-S214.html?v=C26B-7-S214_2023050320230503]


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

In Utah from 2000 to 2022, gonorrhea rates among males have consistently been higher than among females. In 2022, gonorrhea rates in Utah were highest among males aged 25 to 29 (370.1 cases per 100,000 persons) and 30 to 34 (309.1 cases per 100,000 persons). Among females, the highest gonorrhea rate was among persons aged 20 to 24 (233.0 cases per 100,000 persons).

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

Gonorrhea may be reported more frequently in men than women because most infections in men produce symptoms that cause them to seek testing and treatment, while infections in women may not produce significant symptoms until complications develop (e.g. PID). Dual chlamydia/gonorrhea testing technology has improved reported rates of both infections.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases include: * sexual activity among young adults 25 and younger * multiple sex partners * prior history of STIs * unprotected sex * illicit drug use. [[br]] Those who fall within one or more of these categories should be tested for STIs in regular intervals. Sites of infection may include pharynx, rectum, vagina, cervix, and urethra.

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

Untreated gonorrhea in women may advance to PID (pelvic inflammatory disease), resulting in an increased likelihood of ectopic pregnancy, preterm delivery, or infertility. Untreated gonorrhea in men may result in infertility. Furthermore, pregnant women with gonorrhea can pass the infection to their infant during delivery, potentially resulting in ophthalmia neonatorum. Gonorrhea can spread to the blood stream and settle in the joints, brain, and heart to become systemic (disseminated gonorrhea).

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Gonorrhea, Utah and U.S., 1992-2022

::chart - missing::

Utah vs. U.S.YearCases per 100,000 Persons
Record Count: 62
Utah199219.5
Utah199318.8
Utah199414.9
Utah199515.2
Utah199612.8
Utah199713.7
Utah199811.0
Utah199911.6
Utah200010.4
Utah200110.0
Utah200215.8
Utah200317.5
Utah200425.1
Utah200529.6
Utah200635.2
Utah200731.6
Utah200817.9
Utah200912.5
Utah201011.2
Utah20119.8
Utah201216.9
Utah201332.8
Utah201449.0
Utah201552.3
Utah201669.0
Utah201781.9
Utah201891.8
Utah201989.8
Utah202096.0
Utah2021108.7
Utah202291.2
U.S.1992196.0
U.S.1993171.1
U.S.1994163.9
U.S.1995147.5
U.S.1996121.8
U.S.1997120.2
U.S.1998129.2
U.S.1999129.3
U.S.2000128.7
U.S.2001126.8
U.S.2002122.0
U.S.2003115.2
U.S.2004112.4
U.S.2005114.6
U.S.2006119.7
U.S.2007118.0
U.S.2008110.7
U.S.200998.1
U.S.2010100.2
U.S.2011103.3
U.S.2012106.7
U.S.2013105.3
U.S.2014109.8
U.S.2015123.0
U.S.2016145.0
U.S.2017170.6
U.S.2018179.1
U.S.2019188.4
U.S.2020206.5
U.S.2021214.0
U.S.2022194.4

Data Notes

Rates were calculated by dividing the number of cases for each year by the total population within that year and multiplying by 100,000. Prior to 2009, Utah rates were calculated using the morbidity report date; effective 2009, rates were calculated using the date of diagnosis.

Data Sources

  • Utah Department of Health and Human Services Office of Communicable Diseases
  • Population Estimates for 1999 and earlier: Utah Governor's Office of Planning and Budget
  • For years 2020 and later, the population estimates are provided by the Kem C. Gardner Policy Institute, Utah state and county annual population estimates are by single year of age and sex, IBIS Version 2022
  • Population Estimates for 2000-2019: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2020
  • National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Gonorrhea by Age and Sex, Utah, 2022

::chart - missing::

Males vs. FemalesAge GroupCases per 100,000 Persons
Record Count: 10
Male15-1980.3
Male20-24305.2
Male25-29370.1
Male30-34309.1
Male35+79.5
Female15-19132.9
Female20-24233.0
Female25-29152.2
Female30-34119.6
Female35+28.1

Data Notes

Rates were calculated by dividing the number of cases for each age/gender group by the total population within that group and multiplying by 100,000.

Data Sources

  • Utah Department of Health and Human Services Office of Communicable Diseases
  • For years 2020 and later, the population estimates are provided by the Kem C. Gardner Policy Institute, Utah state and county annual population estimates are by single year of age and sex, IBIS Version 2022


Gonorrhea by Race/Ethnicity, Utah, 2022

::chart - missing::

Race/Ethnicity GroupCases per 100,000 Persons
Record Count: 7
American Indian/Alaskan Native219.7
Asian75.8
Black/African American691.8
Hispanic/Latino161.8
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander287.2
Two or more races28.5
White, non-Hispanic/Latino84.1

Data Notes

Rates were calculated by dividing the number of cases within a race/ethnicity group by the population within that group and multiplying by 100,000.

Data Sources

  • Utah Department of Health and Human Services Office of Communicable Diseases
  • Population Estimates by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for Counties in Utah, U.S. Bureau of the Census, IBIS Version 2022


Gonorrhea by Local Health District, Utah, 2022

::chart - missing::

Local Health DistrictCases per 100,000 Population
Record Count: 15
Bear River34.6
Central27.0
Davis County63.4
Salt Lake County166.4
San Juan61.3
Southeast24.7
Southwest37.7
Summit50.4
Tooele65.7
TriCounty31.2
Utah County46.8
Wasatch38.2
Weber-Morgan70.9
State of Utah91.2
U.S.194.4

Data Notes

Rates were calculated by dividing the number of cases within a local health district by the total population in that district and multiplying by 100,000.

Data Sources

  • Utah Department of Health and Human Services Office of Communicable Diseases
  • For years 2020 and later, the population estimates are provided by the Kem C. Gardner Policy Institute, Utah state and county annual population estimates are by single year of age and sex, IBIS Version 2022

References and Community Resources

Fact sheets for communicable diseases may be found on the Office of Communicable Diseases website [https://epi.utah.gov/atozlist/]. STI resources and reports are available on the DHHS HIV/STD, Elimination, Analysis, Response, and Treatment (HEART) Program website [https://epi.utah.gov/ptc-std/]. Screening Guidelines [https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/screening-recommendations.htm]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention website [https://www.cdc.gov/std/default.htm]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ''Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2022''. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2024. [https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/2022/default.htm]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines 2021 [http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment].

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER Database, a system for disseminating public health data and information.
  • United States Census Bureau data dashboard.
  • Utah healthy Places Index, evidence-based and peer-reviewed tool, supports efforts to prioritize equitable community investments, develop critical programs and policies across the state, and much more.
  • County Health Rankings
  • Kaiser Family Foundation's StateHealthFacts.org
  • Medical literature can be queried at PubMed library.



Page Content Updated On 02/23/2024, Published on 04/26/2024
The information provided above is from the Utah Department of Health and Human Services IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Mon, 17 June 2024 23:53:30 from Utah Department of Health and Human Services, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Fri, 26 Apr 2024 11:32:26 MDT