PHOM Indicator Profile Report of Foodborne Illness - Salmonella Infections
Why Is This Important?Salmonellosis is an infectious disease caused by ''Salmonella'' bacteria. Most persons infected with ''Salmonella'' develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12-72 hours after exposure. The illness usually lasts 4-7 days, and most persons recover without treatment. In some patients, the ''Salmonella'' infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream and can lead to hospitalization or death unless the person is treated promptly. The elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to have a severe illness. The infection is acquired by eating or drinking food contaminated with ''Salmonella'' bacteria. Illness may also be spread by direct contact with an infected person or animal. ''Salmonella'' bacteria are commonly found in food products such as eggs, egg products, meats, poultry, unpasteurized dairy products, and contaminated produce. Domestic animals including poultry (especially baby ducks and chicks), reptiles (e.g., lizards and snakes), amphibians (especially turtles), and farm animals (e.g., cattle and pigs) may carry the bacteria.
Rate of Reported Salmonella Infections Utah and U.S., 1998-2017
- Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology
- Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2017
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Data NotesThe U.S. rates are derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Summary of Notifiable Diseases. The Utah rates are derived from Utah annual surveillance reports. Utah and U.S data are preliminary and may change. The CSTE case definition includes all confirmed and probable cases of ''Salmonella''.
Risk FactorsAll age groups can be infected with ''Salmonella'', but young children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems are the most severely affected.
How Are We Doing?The number of reported ''Salmonella'' infections in Utah decreased from 27.8 cases per 100,000 person-years in 1999 to 12.5 per 100,000 person-years in 2017. The Healthy People 2020 target is 11.4 cases per 100,000 person-years; Utah achieved this target in 2016. In 2017, due in part to large national outbreaks and an increase in laboratory detection by culture independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), Utah had an increase in ''Salmonella'' cases and did not meet the Health People 2020 goal. The 5-year average for ''Salmonella'' infections for 2013-2017 in Utah is at 12.5 cases per 100,000 person-years, just over the Healthy People 2020 goal. A portion of the decrease in the number of salmonellosis cases reported in Utah since 1999 may be attributed to efforts of the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food through their Egg and Poultry Grading service. The mission of this service is to assure Utah consumers safe, wholesome, quality eggs, egg products, and poultry. Recent national investigations have identified outbreaks of ''Salmonella'' linked to contaminated tomatoes eaten raw (2004 and 2008), cantaloupe (2000-2002), raw almonds (2003-2004), ground beef (2004), pet rodents (2004), dry dog food (2006 and 2007), peanut butter (2008), African Dwarf Frogs (2009), alfalfa sprouts (2010), queso fresco (2011), poultry (2010-2012), cucumbers (2015), raw milk (2016), and live poultry (2017).
What Is Being Done?From 1994 to 2000, ''Salmonella'' Enteritidis (SE) was found in approximately 55% of all ''Salmonella'' infections. This was primarily due to several outbreaks associated with eating raw or undercooked eggs. However, since 2000, there has only been one outbreak of salmonellosis associated with eggs in Utah. This has resulted in a decrease in the number of ''Salmonella'' infections overall and a decrease in the proportion of ''Salmonella'' infections that are due to SE. In 2017, 15.1% of all ''Salmonella'' infections were the serotype SE. The improvement in decreasing ''Salmonella'' rates may be directly linked to the Utah Egg Quality Assurance Program (UEQAP) described in the "How Are We Doing?" section. Additionally, improvements in laboratory and epidemiologic techniques, as well as improved communication between state and local jurisdictions, has resulted in improved outbreak detection, especially for outbreaks due to uncommon sources of ''Salmonella''. Per the Communicable Disease Rule R386-702-3, health care providers and laboratories are required to report salmonellosis cases to the Bureau of Epidemiology or a local health department. The Bureau of Epidemiology assists local health departments with the investigation of cases and outbreaks and implementation of control measures to prevent further cases. Local health departments make an attempt to interview every case of salmonellosis reported to public health. Information gathered during these interviews includes food history, water exposure, animal exposure, travel history, and contact with ill individuals. Data from these interviews are analyzed and used to identify outbreaks and common sources of infection. Some general guidelines to prevent the spread of ''Salmonella'' include the following: *Always refrigerate meat, cook meats completely, and never eat raw meat. *Always refrigerate eggs and cook eggs and food containing raw eggs completely. Never eat dough, batter, sauces, ice cream, or other foods that contain raw eggs. *Use only pasteurized milk and juices. *Carefully wash hands before and after preparing food, after using the toilet, changing diapers, or touching animals. [[br]] Visit [http://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/] for good hand washing techniques.
Healthy People Objective: Reduce infections caused by ''Salmonella'' species transmitted commonly through foodU.S. Target: 11.4 cases per 100,000
State Target: 11.4 cases per 100,000