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Health Indicator Report of Rape

Sexual violence in Utah is a serious public health problem affecting thousands of residents each year. Studies in Utah indicate that one in eight women and one in 50 men will experience rape in their lifetimes and nearly one in three women will experience some form of sexual violence during their lives.^1^ The costs resulting from sexual violence in 2011 totaled nearly $5 billion, almost $1,700 per Utah resident. The Utah state government spent more than $92 million on people known to have perpetrated sexual violence. Only $569,000 was spent on efforts to prevent sexual violence.^2^ Rape is the only violent crime in Utah that is higher than the national average. In a state where other violent crimes, such as homicide, robbery, or aggravated assault, is historically half to three times lower than the national average, this is of concern.^3^ Rape affects the quality of life and may have lasting consequences for victims. The 2010 Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System showed that rape victims had a significantly higher prevalence in reporting that they were not satisfied with life (14.7% vs. 4.8%), didn't receive the social and emotional support they need (33.8% vs. 13.2%), had fair or poor health (25.9% vs. 10.7%), and were limited in activities because of physical, mental, or emotional problems (39.2% vs. 19.7%). In the 2013 survey, 11.0% of respondents indicated that they experienced a form of sexual abuse as a child. This was significantly higher for females (15.2%) compared to males (6.6%).^4^[[br]] [[br]] ---- 1) Utah Health Status Update, Sexual Violence, April 2008, (accessed 1/4/2017) [http://ibis.health.utah.gov/pdf/opha/publication/hsu/2008/08Apr_SexualViolence.pdf][[br]] 2) Utah Violence and Injury Prevention Program. Costs of Sexual Violence in Utah 2015. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Department of Health, 2015. (accessed 1/4/2017) [http://www.health.utah.gov/vipp/pdf/RapeSexualAssault/costs-sexual-violence-report.pdf][[br]] 3) Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice, ''2007 Rape in Utah Survey'', (accessed 1/4/2017) [https://justice.utah.gov/Violence/Documents/RapeinUtah2007.pdf][[br]] 4) Utah Health Status Update, Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health, July 2015, (accessed 1/4/2017) [http://ibis.health.utah.gov/pdf/opha/publication/hsu/2015/1507_ACE.pdf]

Female Forcible Rape, Utah and U.S., 2002-2015

Notes

Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program Legacy Definition: Forcible rape is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults and attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded. In 2013, the definition was revised to: Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. To continue trends, the legacy definition was used, especially since there are only three years of data for the revised definition at this time. The rape rate includes only those that have been reported to law enforcement and is an underestimate of the actual rape rate. Some law enforcement agencies do not submit a full 12 months of data and some agencies do not submit any data at all.

Data Sources

  • Bureau of Criminal Identification, Utah Department of Public Safety
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2015

Data Interpretation Issues

Statistics vary because of differences in how rape is defined and how data is collected. A limitation to Uniform Crime Reporting data is that historically the definition used for rape was very narrow. Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program Legacy Definition: Forcible rape is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults and attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded. In 2013, the definition was revised to: Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. To continue trends, the legacy definition was used, especially since there are only three years of data for the revised definition at this time. The rape rate includes only those that have been reported to law enforcement and is an underestimate of the actual rape rate. Some law enforcement agencies do not submit a full 12 months of data and some agencies do not submit any data at all. The numerator of the rate is by county of occurrence, not county of residence.

Definition

The rape rate is reported as the number of rapes among Utah females per 100,000 population.

Numerator

Number of reported rapes among females in Utah.

Denominator

Total female population of Utah.

Healthy People Objective IVP-40:

(Developmental) Reduce sexual violence
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category

Other Objectives

Subobjectives for Healthy People Objective IVP-40 include: ====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.1:==== (Developmental) Reduce rape or attempted rape[[br]] '''State Target:''' 11.2 percent ====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.2:==== (Developmental) Reduce abusive sexual contact other than rape or attempted rape ====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.3:==== (Developmental) Reduce non-contact sexual abuse

How Are We Doing?

From 2006 to 2015, Utah Uniform Crime Reports show that Carbon, Duchesne, Grand, Salt Lake, Tooele, and Uintah counties had significantly higher reported rape rates than the state rate of 93.7 per 100,000 female population. Unfortunately the majority of rapes (88.2%) are not reported to law enforcement according to the 2007 Rape in Utah Survey. This clearly indicates that sexual violence rates are underestimated. Because we know that rape is underreported, it is difficult to gauge the magnitude of the problem using federal and state crime reports. The 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that 8.9% of Utah female high school students have been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to, compared to 5.9% of male high school students.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

According to Uniform Crime Reports, the rape rate in Utah has been consistently higher than the U.S. rate. In 2015, Utah's reported rape rate was significantly higher than the U.S. rate (74.6 and 55.2 per 100,000 females). Utah's rape rate has increased 17.5% since 2013.

What Is Being Done?

The Utah Department of Health Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) and the Utah Coalition Against Sexual Assault (UCASA) collaborated in 1999 to enlist individuals, organizations, and agencies to participate in a statewide multi-disciplinary council addressing sexual violence. In 2003, the Utah Sexual Violence Council (USVC) was formed. The USVC is a multi-disciplinary, statewide advisory council that promotes a climate where sexual violence is addressed as a priority issue that impacts all Utah communities. Its vision is to change social norms and improve Utah's understanding of the overwhelming significance of this public health, social service, and criminal justice problem. Since 2000, the VIPP has received Rape Prevention and Education Grants from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The intent of the grant is to ensure that UCASA, as well as rape recovery centers and other community based organizations, engage in collaborative efforts with the VIPP to provide rape primary prevention and education services.

Evidence-based Practices

Few programs have been shown to prevent sexual violence perpetration. A systematic review conducted by CDC's Injury Center has identifed the following programs to be effective or promising ([https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/sexualviolence/prevention.html]): *Safe Dates *Shifting Boundaries *Real Consent *Green Dot *Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention *Coaching Boys Into Men *Bringing in the Bystander[[br]] [[br]] Stop SV: A Technical Package to Prevent Sexual Violence contains a select group of strategies based on the best available evidence to help communities and states focus prevention activities.[[br]] [https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/sv-prevention-technical-package.pdf]

Available Services

Statewide 24-hour Rape and Sexual Assault Crisis and Information Line 1-888-421-1100 __Box Elder, Cache, Rich Counties__[[br]] Citizens Against Physical and Sexual Abuse (CAPSA) 435-753-2500[[br]] New Hope Crisis Center 435-726-5600 __Davis, Weber, Morgan Counties__[[br]] Safe Harbor 801-444-3191 and 801-444-9161 (Crisis)[[br]] YCC, Ogden 801-394-9456 and 801-392-7273 (Crisis) __Salt Lake, Summit, Tooele Counties__[[br]] Rape Recovery Center 801-467-7282[[br]] Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Victim Advocacy 435-241-0337[[br]] Peace House 435-647-9161 __Juab, Millard, Utah, Wasatch Counties__[[br]] Center for Women and Children in Crisis 801-374-9351 __Iron, Beaver, Washington Counties__[[br]] Cedar City-Canyon Creek Women's Crisis Center 435-867-9411 and 435-865-7443 (Crisis)[[br]] Dove Center 435-628-0458 __Sevier, Wayne, Piute, Garfield, Kane Counties__[[br]] New Horizons Crisis Center 435-896-9294 and 800-343-6302 (Crisis) __Carbon, San Juan, Emery, Grand Counties__[[br]] Seekhaven 435-259-2229 __Uintah, Daggett, Duchesne Counties__[[br]] Vernal Victim Advocates 435-789-5835

Health Program Information

The Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) is a trusted and comprehensive resource for data related to violence and injury. Through education, this information helps promote partnerships and programs to prevent injuries and improve public health. VIPP goals are to a) focus prevention efforts on reducing intentional and unintentional injury, b) conduct education aimed at increasing awareness and changing behaviors that contribute to the occurrence of injury, c) strengthen local health department capacity to conduct local injury prevention programs, d) promote legislation, policy changes, and enforcement that will reduce injury hazards and increase safe behaviors, e) collaborate with private and public partners, and f) improve the Utah Department of Health capacity to collect mortality and morbidity data from multiple sources and conduct injury epidemiology for use in prevention planning, implementation, and evaluation.
Page Content Updated On 01/03/2017, Published on 01/24/2017
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Content updated: Tue, 24 Jan 2017 13:56:21 MST