Health Indicator Report of Overweight or Obese
Being overweight increases the risk of many chronic diseases, including heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, and some cancers. Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. Utahns have been gaining weight so rapidly that in 2015 almost two-thirds (60.7%) of all adults were overweight or obese (age-adjusted rate). The obesity epidemic among Utahns threatens to reverse the decades-long progress made in reducing death from chronic disease.
Overweight or Obese by Year, Utah and U.S., 1989-2015
NotesOverweight or obese is defined as a BMI of 25 or more. BMI is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters. [[br]] [[br]] In 2011, the BRFSS changed its methodology from a landline only sample and weighting based on post-stratification to a landline/cell phone sample and raking as the weighting methodology. Raking accounts for variables such as income, education, marital status, and home ownership during weighting and has the potential to more accurately reflect the population distribution. [[br]] [[br]] Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. [[br]] [[br]] Note: At the time of this update, the BRFSS U.S. dataset did not include an age variable but did include five age categories up to age 80+ (vs. the typical weighting scheme that includes 85+). Comparisons with both weighting schemes were compared using Utah data, and the difference was about 1/100 of a percentage point.
- Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health
- U.S. Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Division of Behavioral Surveillance, CDC Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services
Data Interpretation IssuesRespondents tend to overestimate their height and underestimate their weight leading to underestimation of BMI and the prevalence of obesity. To reduce bias and more accurately represent population data, the BRFSS has changed survey methodology. In 2010, it began conducting surveys by cellular phone in addition to landline phones. It also adopted "iterative proportional fitting" (raking) as its weighting method. More details about these changes can be found at: [http://health.utah.gov/opha/publications/brfss/Raking/Raking%20impact%202011.pdf].
DefinitionThe proportion of persons age 18 years and older who have a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25.0 kg/m^2^ calculated from self-reported weight and height.
NumeratorThe number of respondents age 18 years and older who have a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25.0 kg/m^2^ calculated from self-reported weight and height.
DenominatorThe number of respondents age 18 years and older for whom BMI can be calculated from their self-reported weight and height (excludes unknowns or refusals for weight and height).
Healthy People Objective NWS-8:Increase the proportion of adults who are at a healthy weight
U.S. Target: 33.9 percent
Other ObjectivesUtah's 42 Community Health Indicators [[br]] CSTE Chronic Disease Indicators
How Are We Doing?The percentage of adults who were overweight or obese increased steadily in Utah and the U.S. in the last decade. In Utah, the percentage of overweight or obese individuals increased from 39.3% in 1989 to 60.7% in 2015. While the sampling method changed for 2011 data, this change was still similarly pronounced in the years immediately prior.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?The percentage of overweight or obese Utahns is approaching the percentage of overweight or obese U.S. adults (2015: Utah, 60.7%; U.S., 64.3%).
What Is Being Done?In 2013, through funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the Healthy Living through Environment, Policy, and Improved Clinical Care Program (EPICC) was established. Within Domain 2--Environmental Approaches that Promote Health--EPICC works: In Schools:[[br]] 1) Schools are encouraged to apply for the Healthy Schools program through the Alliance for a Healthier Generation. Participation in this program assists schools to set up policy and environmental supports that make it easier for students and staff to be physically active and eat healthy food.[[br]] 2) Height and weight trends are being tracked in a sample of elementary students to monitor Utah students.[[br]] 3) Action for Healthy Kids brings partners together to improve nutrition and physical activity environments in Utah's schools by implementing the school-based state plan strategies, working with local school boards to improve or develop policies for nutritious foods in schools. This includes recommendations for healthy vending options. In Worksites:[[br]] 1) The Utah Council for Worksite Health Promotion recognizes businesses that offer employee fitness and health promotion programs.[[br]] 2) EPICC partners with local health departments to encourage worksites to complete the CDC Scorecard and participate in yearly health risk assessment for their employees. EPICC provides toolkits and other resources for employers interested in implementing wellness programs through the [http://choosehealth.utah.gov choosehealth.utah.gov] website: [http://www.choosehealth.utah.gov/worksites/wellness-programs.php]. In Communities:[[br]] 1) Local health departments (LHDs) receive federal funding to partner with schools, worksites, and other community based organizations to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables through farmers markets and retail stores. LHDs also work with cities within their jurisdictions to create a built environment that encourages physical activity. In Healthcare:[[br]] 1) EPICC works with health care systems to establish community clinical linkages to support individuals at risk for or diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension to engage in lifestyle change programs such as chronic disease self-management and diabetes prevention programs. In Childcare:[[br]] 1) LHDs statewide are implementing the TOP Star program, which aims to improve the nutrition and physical activity environments and achieve best practice in child care centers and homes.[[br]] 2) EPICC works with state and local partners through the Childcare Obesity Prevention workgroup to implement policy and systems changes in early care and education across agencies statewide.
Evidence-based PracticesThe EPICC program promotes evidence based practices collected by the Center TRT. The Center for Training and Research Translation (Center TRT) bridges the gap between research and practice and supports the efforts of public health practitioners working in nutrition, physical activity, and obesity prevention by: *Reviewing evidence of public health impact and disseminating population-level interventions *Designing and providing practice-relevant training both in-person and web-based *Addressing social determinants of health and health equity through training and translation efforts *Providing guidance on evaluating policies and programs aimed at impacting healthy eating and physical activity[[br]][[br]] Appropriate evidence based interventions can be found at:[[br]] [http://www.centertrt.org/?p=interventions_interventions_overview]
Available ServicesThe Utah Department of Health EPICC program's website located at [http://www.choosehealth.utah.gov] Healthier US Schools Challenge--for more information, visit[[br]] [http://teamnutrition.usda.gov/healthierUS/application.html] Action for Healthy Kids Program - for more information, visit [http://www.actionforhealthykids.org] Making the Healthy Choice the Easy Choice, The Utah Nutrition and Physical Activity Plan 2010-2020. [http://www.choosehealth.utah.gov/documents/pdfs/U-PAN_State_Plan.pdf] NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative at [https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/org/oei] The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight & Obesity at [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44206/]
Page Content Updated On 12/06/2016, Published on 12/15/2016