Health Indicator Report of Cervical Cancer Screening (Pap)
Cervical cancer is one of the most curable cancers if detected early through routine screening. Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by infection with high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV vaccine protects against the HPV types that most often cause cervical cancer. Women who have had an HPV vaccine still need to have routine Pap smears because the vaccine does not fully protect against all the strains of the virus and other risk factors that can cause cervical cancer. HPV is transmitted through sexual contact. Any woman who is sexually active is at risk for developing cervical cancer. Other risk factors include giving birth to many children, having sexual relations at an early age, having multiple sex partners or partners with many other partners, cigarette smoking, and use of oral contraceptives. Cervical cancer screening should begin about three years after a woman begins having intercourse but no later than 21 years of age. Cervical screening should be performed every year with conventional Pap tests or every two years with liquid-based Pap tests. Beginning at age 30, women who have had three normal test results in a row may undergo screening every two to three years.
Percentage of Women Age 18+ Who Reported Having Had a Pap Smear in the Past Three Years by Ethnicity, Utah, 2010 and 2012
NotesTo reduce bias and more accurately represent population data, the BRFSS has changed survey methodology. It began conducting surveys by cellular phone in addition to landline phones. It also adopted "iterative proportional fitting" (raking) as its weighting method. The data used in creating this graph was calculated using the new weighting methodology. Age-adjusted to the U.S. 2000 standard population.
Data SourceUtah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health
Data Interpretation IssuesTo reduce bias and more accurately represent population data, the BRFSS has changed survey methodology. In 2010, it began conducting surveys by cellular phone in addition to landline phones. It also adopted "iterative proportional fitting" (raking) as its weighting method.
DefinitionThe proportion of women 18 years or older who reported having a Pap test in the last three years.
NumeratorThe proportion of women 18 years or older who reported having a Pap test in the last three years.
DenominatorThe total number of female survey respondents aged 18 or older excluding those who responded "don't know" or "refused" to the numerator question.
Healthy People Objective C-15:Increase the proportion of women who receive a cervical cancer screening based on the most recent guidelines
U.S. Target: 93.0 percent
State Target: 83.6 percent
How Are We Doing?Between 1991 and 2012, the percentage of Utah women aged 18 or older who reported receiving a Pap test within the last three years decreased from 88.2 percent to 70.2 percent. The 2010 and 2012 average percentage was significantly lower among American Indian/Native Alaskan (55.6) women.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?Nationally, the percentage of women aged 18 or older who reported receiving a Pap test in the past three years decreased from 87.7 percent in 1989 to 77.4 percent in 2012. Since 1994, the percentage of Utah women aged 18 or older who reported receiving a Pap has been below that seen for U.S. women.
What Is Being Done?The Utah Cancer Control Program (UCCP) provides free to low cost Pap tests and pelvic exams to women who meet age and income guidelines. Eligible women with abnormal screening exams are offered diagnostic evaluation by participating providers. In addition, the UCCP provides education about the need for early detection and the availability of screening services, collects outcomes data, and disseminates information about cervical cancer. In addition, the Utah Department of Health initiated the Utah Cancer Action Network (UCAN), a statewide partnership whose goal is to reduce the burden of cancer. The mission of the UCAN is to lower cancer incidence and mortality in Utah through collaborative efforts directed toward cancer prevention and control. As a result of this planning process, objectives and strategies have been developed by community partners regarding the early detection of cervical, testicular, prostate, skin, breast, and colorectal cancers as well as the promotion of physical activity, healthy eating habits, and smoking cessation.
Available ServicesThe Utah Cancer Control Program (UCCP) provides free and low cost Pap tests and pelvic exams to women who meet age and income guidelines. Eligible women with abnormal screening exams are offered diagnostic evaluation by participating providers. As of July 1, 2001, the UCCP is able to refer Utah women in need of treatment for cervical cancers and precancerous lesions to Medicaid for full benefits. The women must meet all requirements as outlined in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Act. In addition, the Utah Immunization Vaccines for Children (VFC) program provides low cost HPV vaccines to females ages 9 to 18 who meet income guidelines.
Health Program InformationIn 1976, the Utah Department of Health received a cervical cancer grant from the National Cancer Institute. In 1980, the Utah Department of Health began providing clinical breast exams and Pap tests on a sliding fee scale. In 1993, state funding was appropriated for mammography. That same year, the Utah Cancer Control Program (UCCP) first received a capacity building grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct breast and cervical cancer screening in Utah. A comprehensive grant was awarded to the program in 1994 to continue breast and cervical cancer screening. Since 1994, the UCCP and partners, including local health departments, mammography facilities, pathology laboratories, and private providers, have worked together to ensure the appropriate and timely provision of clinical services. The UCCP continues to receive funding from the CDC for breast and cervical cancer screening. Additionally, the UCCP receives funding to implement comprehensive cancer control strategies that were identified by the Utah Cancer Action Network (UCAN) statewide partnership.
Page Content Updated On 08/07/2014, Published on 08/08/2014