Health Indicator Report of Breast Cancer Deaths
Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in U.S. women (excluding basal and squamous cell skin cancers) and a leading cause of female cancer deaths in both Utah and the U.S. Nationally, deaths from lung cancer surpass deaths from breast cancer; however, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among Utah women. Deaths from breast cancer can be substantially reduced if the tumor is discovered at an early stage. Mammography is currently the best method for detecting cancer early. Clinical trials and observational studies have demonstrated that routine screening with mammography can reduce breast cancer mortality by about 20% for women of average risk.^1^ We do not yet know exactly what causes breast cancer, but we do know that certain risk factors are linked to the disease. Some of these risk factors include age, socioeconomic status, exposure to ionizing radiation, family history, alcohol, and hormonal influence. Some studies indicate that environmental contaminants such as benzene and organic solvents can cause mammary tumors, but clear links have not been established.[[br]] [[br]] ''1. Myers ER, Moorman P, Gierisch JM, et al. Benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13183.''
Breast Cancer Deaths by Ethnicity, Utah, 2012-2014
NotesCodes used to define female breast cancer: ICD-10 C50. Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population using 3 age groups, 0-44, 45-64, and 65+.
- Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
- Population Estimates by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for Counties in Utah, U.S. Bureau of the Census, IBIS Version 2014
Data Interpretation IssuesICD-10 code C50 also includes male breast cancer. Rates were comparability modified, but because there are so few male breast cancer deaths, this was not believed to have introduced any noticeable artifact into the rates.
DefinitionThe rate of death from cancer of the breast (ICD-9 174, ICD-10 C50) per 100,000 women.
NumeratorThe number of deaths due to breast cancer among women for a given time period (ICD-9: 174 and ICD-10: C50).
DenominatorThe female population of Utah or U.S. for a given time period.
Healthy People Objective C-3:Reduce the female breast cancer death rate
U.S. Target: 20.7 deaths per 100,000 females
State Target: currently being revised
Other ObjectivesCSTE Chronic Disease Indicators
How Are We Doing?Utah's age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate did not change appreciably from 1980 to 1998 (26.8 and 27.0 per 100,000 females, respectively). The mortality rate decreased to 21.8 in 1999, and in 2014 the rate was 20.1 per 100,000 females. Breast cancer mortality rates increased significantly with age. For combined years 2012-2014 there were 204.8 deaths due to breast cancer per 100,000 women ages 85 years or older. This is in comparison to 40.2 deaths per 100,000 women ages 55-64, 65.2 deaths per 100,000 women ages 64-74, and 110.9 deaths per 100,000 women ages 75-84. From 2010 to 2014, Central Utah Health District had the highest breast cancer mortality rate of 28.1 deaths per 100,000 women. TriCounty Health District had the lowest rate with 14.7 per 100,000 women. When the health districts were divided into Utah Small Areas, breast cancer mortality rates ranged from a high of 34.8 per 100,000 females in Riverdale to a low of 6.6 in South Salt Lake for the same time period. For combined years 2012-2014, Hispanics had a lower age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate (16.2 per 100,000 women) than non-Hispanics (20.6), although, this difference was not significant. When looking at breast cancer mortality rates by race, Asian women had a significantly lower rate (11.2 deaths per 100,000 women) than all races combined (20.6) for years 2010-2014.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?On average, Utah has consistently had a lower age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate than the U.S. However, in 2006 Utah experienced a higher breast cancer mortality rate than the U.S. (25.7 per 100,000 Utah females died from breast cancer compared with 23.6 U.S. females. This was not a statistically significant difference. In 2012 (the most recent U.S. data available through SEER), the U.S. breast cancer mortality rate was 21.3 compared with Utah's rate of 20.5. This was not a statistically significant difference.
What Is Being Done?The Utah Cancer Control Program (UCCP) in the Utah Department of Health distributes free mammography vouchers to women who receive a clinical breast exam at a UCCP sponsored clinic and meet age and income guidelines. Eligible women with abnormal screening exams are offered diagnostic evaluation by participating providers. As of July 1, 2001, the UCCP is able to refer Utah women in need of treatment for breast and cervical cancers for full Medicaid benefits. In addition, the Utah Department of Health initiated the Utah Cancer Action Network (UCAN), a statewide partnership whose goal is to reduce the burden of cancer. The mission of the UCAN is to lower cancer incidence and mortality in Utah through collaborative efforts directed toward cancer prevention and control. As a result of this planning process, objectives and strategies have been developed by community partners regarding the early detection of cervical, testicular, prostate, skin, breast, and colorectal cancers as well as the promotion of physical activity, healthy eating habits, and smoking cessation.
Available ServicesThe Utah Cancer Control Program (UCCP) provides free to low cost clinical breast exams and mammograms to women who meet age and income guidelines. Eligible women with abnormal screening exams are offered diagnostic evaluation by participating providers. As of July 1, 2001, the UCCP is able to refer Utah women in need of treatment for breast and cervical cancers for full Medicaid benefits. The women must meet all requirements as outlined in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Act.
Health Program InformationIn 1976, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) received a cervical cancer grant from the National Cancer Institute. In 1980, the UDOH began providing clinical breast exams and Pap tests on a sliding fee scale. In 1993, state funding was appropriated for mammography. That same year, the Utah Cancer Control Program (UCCP) first received a capacity building grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to conduct breast and cervical cancer screening in Utah. A comprehensive grant was awarded to the program in 1994 to continue breast and cervical cancer screening. Since 1994, the UCCP and partners, including local health departments, mammography facilities, pathology laboratories, and private providers, have worked together to ensure the appropriate and timely provision of clinical services. The UCCP continues to receive funding from the CDC for breast and cervical cancer screening. Additionally, the UCCP receives funding to implement comprehensive cancer control strategies that were identified by the Utah Cancer Action Network (UCAN) statewide partnership.
Page Content Updated On 11/05/2015, Published on 12/14/2015