Health Indicator Report of Blood Lead in Children
Lead poisoning is the most significant and prevalent disease of environmental origin among children living in the United States. Despite considerable knowledge and increased screening and intervention efforts, lead exposures remain prevalent. Environmental lead is a toxic substance that is affecting the growth and development of up to one million U.S. preschool children today, with effects ranging from learning disabilities to death. High levels of lead can cause many health problems by damaging the brain, nervous system, and kidneys. Lead poisoning can cause decreased intelligence, behavioral and speech problems, anemia, decreased muscle and bone growth, poor muscle coordination, and hearing damage. Increased lead exposure and increased body burden of lead remains a significant problem for children in the United States. Lead is an environmental toxicant that may cause adverse health effects to the nervous, hematopoietic, endocrine, renal, and reproductive systems. Lead exposure in young children is particularly hazardous because children absorb lead more readily than adults and many children who are exposed to lead do not exhibit any signs that they have the disease. Any signs or symptoms the child may have could be mistaken for other illnesses and the child goes undiagnosed. The developing nervous system of children is particularly more susceptible to the effects of lead. The underdeveloped blood-brain barrier in young children increases the risk of lead entering the developing nervous system resulting in neurobehavioral disorders. Blood lead levels (BLLs) as low as 10 mcg/dL have been shown to be associated with behavior and developmental deficit in children. Additional evidence has shown that lead is toxic at even lower levels than previously thought, making it increasingly important for childhood lead poisoning prevention education and awareness. While all persons are exposed to lead in the environment, a significant source of lead exposure for some adults may be their workplace environment. Also, adults that are being exposed to lead at the workplace may bring home the leaded dust on their clothes, shoes, etc. and possibly expose other family members if precautionary measures are not taken. Lead-contaminated water, soil, and paint have been recognized as potential sources of children's lead exposure. Dust from deteriorating lead-based paint is considered to be the largest contributor to the lead problem. Until the 1950s, many homes were covered inside and out with leaded paints. Lead began to fall from favor in the 1950s, but was still commonly used until it was banned from use in homes after 1977. Because of the long term use of lead-based paints, many homes in the United States contain surfaces with paint, which is now peeling, chalking, flaking, or wearing away. The dust or paint chips contain high levels of lead that easily find ways into the mouths of young children. A particular problem has emerged due to the large number of homes with lead-based paints which are now undergoing renovations. Often the dust created by this work has high lead levels which are readily absorbed by the children's developing bodies. Another environmental source of lead in Utah, is household dust and soil containing particles of lead from mining waste. Communities built near or on mining and smelting waste piles, where children may play, is a significant source of lead exposure in children.
Prevalence of Children Aged 0-5 Years With Blood Lead Levels >= 10 mcg/dL, Utah, 1996-2012
Notes*EBLL = Elevated Blood Lead Level (>= 10 mcg/dL). Prevalence is calculated as (number of cases with an elevated blood lead level/number of persons tested) x 100. Prior to 1996, results on children were not collected, therefore, this calculation was not made for those years.
- Utah Blood Lead Registry
- Environmental Epidemiology Program, Division of Disease Control and Prevention, Utah Department of Health
- Geometric Mean of Children Aged 0-5 Years Tested, Utah, 1996-2012
- Number of Pre-1950 Housing Units by County, Utah, 1990 vs. 2000
- Percent of Homes Built Before 1950 by County, Utah, 2000
- Number of Utah Children Prior to 36 Months of Age Tested by Birth Cohort, 2006-2009
- Percent of Utah Children Prior to 36 Months of Age Tested by Birth Cohort, 2006-2009
- Number of Children Younger Than 5 Years Living in Poverty, Utah, 1999
- Number of Children Younger Than 5 Years Living in Poverty by County, Utah, 1999
- Percentage of Children Younger Than 5 Years Living in Poverty by County, Utah, 1999
DefinitionThis Indicator Report contains the following variables: 1. Percentage/geometric mean of children tested, aged 0 through 5 years with blood lead levels of 10 mcg/dL or greater. 2. Number/percentage of homes built before 1950. 3. Number/percentage of children aged 0 through 36 months tested for lead poisoning. 4. Number/percentage of children younger than 5 years living in poverty.
Numerator1. Total number of children tested, aged 0 through 5 years with a blood lead level of 10 mcg/dL or greater. 2. Total number of homes built before 1950. 3. Total number of children aged 0-36 months that were tested for lead poisoning. 4. Total number of children younger than 5 years living in poverty.
Denominator1. Total number of children aged 0 through 5 years tested for blood lead. 2. Total number of homes. 3. Total number of children aged 0-36 months. 4. Total number of children younger than 5 years.
Healthy People Objective EH-8:Reduce blood lead levels in children
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category
Other ObjectivesHealthy People 2020 Objective EH-8.1 Eliminate elevated blood lead levels in children Target: Not applicable Healthy People 2020 Objective EH-8.2 Reduce the mean blood lead levels in children U.S. Target: 1.4 mcg/dL average blood lead level in children aged 1-5 years Utah Target: 1.2 mcg/dL average blood lead level in children aged 0-5 years
What Is Being Done?The Utah Department of Health Environmental Epidemiology Program (EEP) collaborates with clinical laboratories to report all blood lead tests conducted on Utah residents, either on a weekly or monthly basis, and if a child is identified with an elevated blood lead level (EBLL) the laboratory notifies either the EEP or local health department (LHD) to ensure timely reporting of the EBLL child. The EEP shares the data with all local health departments. The LHD assists the EEP by providing case management of children identified with an EBLL. Surveillance data is kept in the Utah Blood Lead Registry (UBLR), housed in the EEP. The analysis of the data helps in determining trends, prevalence of EBLL children, screening rates among specific high-risk populations, and areas identified high risk such as older housing and mining communities. The EEP program relies extensively on the LHDs to assist parents/guardians of children who need educational, medical, and environmental assessments. The LHD also serves as a repository of information collected from each EBLL child and provides assistance upon request. Lead poisoning prevention educational materials are distributed from the EEP, LHDs, Baby Your Baby Program, Wee Care Program, Utah Department of Air Quality/Lead-Based Paint Program, Migrant Head Start Program, some physicians, and federal agencies such as: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Environmental Protection Agency, Housing and Urban Development, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Utah Administrative Code R386-703 (Injury Reporting Rule) establishes an injury surveillance and reporting system for major injuries occurring in Utah. Lead poisoning was added to the list of reportable injuries in 1990. Initially, under that rule, lead poisoning injuries were defined to include lead poisoning of all persons with whole blood lead concentrations >= 30 mcg/dL. In December 1991, the reportable level was lowered to >= 15 mcg/dL, and on January 1, 1997, the reportable level was lowered to >= 10 mcg/dL. The EEP receives reports of blood lead test results, which includes case name, age or birth date, sex, test date, blood lead level, and name of physician or agency. The UBLR was established in 1990 by the Bureau of Epidemiology. In 1992, the Bureau received funding from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to expand the adult surveillance of blood lead poisoning and to analyze the epidemiology of adult lead poisoning in Utah. That funding created the ABLES (Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance) project. In 1996 the Bureau received CDC funding to again expand the UBLR and to establish and develop the inclusion of children being tested for blood lead. The UBLR consists of a relational database with laboratory reports of blood lead test results. Prior to 1996 only blood lead test results reported by laboratories for adults with elevated levels were entered into the database. Since 1996, all blood lead test results reported by laboratories are entered into the database. The database is maintained by the EEP and entries are categorized for children and adults.
Available ServicesThe Utah Department of Health Environmental Epidemiology Program is available to answer questions about lead poisoning and provide educational material to the public. Contact your local health department or physician for a blood lead test. If you have any questions please call the Utah Department of Health, Blood Lead Program and ask for Mark Jones at (801) 538-6191.
Health Program InformationTo view "Utah's Childhood Blood Lead Screening Recommendations" go to EEP's website at: http://health.utah.gov/epi/enviroepi/ables98/child.htm. Also, for additional information about lead in toys and products visit the above website.
Page Content Updated On 01/17/2014, Published on 05/05/2014