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Health Indicator Report of Daily Vegetable Consumption

Fruits and vegetables contain essential vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other compounds that may help prevent many chronic diseases. Compared with people who consume a diet with only small amounts of fruits and vegetables, those who eat more generous amounts as part of a healthful diet are likely to have reduced risk of chronic diseases, including stroke and perhaps other cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers^1^. Fruits and vegetables also help people to achieve and maintain a healthy weight, because they are relatively low in energy density^2^. To promote health and prevent chronic diseases, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend 2.5 cups of vegetables per day for a standard 2,000 calorie diet, with recommendations based on an individual's age, gender, and activity level^3^. Two and one-half cups represents five 1/2-cup servings of vegetables daily.[[br]] [[br]] ---- 1. CDC. ''Can eating fruits and vegetables help people to manage their weight?'' (Research to Practice Series No. 1) [Online Access] [http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/nutrition/pdf/rtp_practitioner_10_07.pdf][[br]] 2. World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research. ''Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective.'' November 2007. [Online Access] [http://www.dietandcancerreport.org] [[br]] 3. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. [http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2010.asp]

Three or More Servings of Vegetables per Day, Utah and U.S., 2011-2015

Notes

In 2011, the BRFSS changed its methodology from a landline only sample and weighting based on post-stratification to a landline/cell phone sample and raking as the weighting methodology. Raking accounts for variables such as income, education, marital status, and home ownership during weighting and has the potential to more accurately reflect the population distribution. Due to changes in both sampling and the fruit consumption question format, 2011 data should not be compared to previous years. U.S. data do not include U.S. territories, but do include District of Columbia. Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population. Note: At the time of this update, the BRFSS U.S. dataset did not include an age variable but did include five age categories up to age 80+ (vs. the typical weighting scheme that includes 85+). Comparisons with both weighting schemes were compared using Utah data, and the difference was about 1/100 of a percentage point.

Data Sources

  • Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health
  • U.S. Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Division of Behavioral Surveillance, CDC Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services

Data Interpretation Issues

Vegetable questions were revised in 2011, so results cannot be compared with previous years. To reduce bias and more accurately represent population data, the BRFSS has changed survey methodology. In 2010, it began conducting surveys by cellular phone in addition to landline phones. It also adopted "iterative proportional fitting" (raking) as its weighting method. More details about these changes can be found at: [http://health.utah.gov/opha/publications/brfss/Raking/Raking%20impact%202011.pdf].

Definition

The proportion of adults who reported consuming at least three daily servings of vegetables, with at least one third of them being dark green or orange vegetables.

Numerator

The number of survey respondents who reported consuming at least three daily servings of vegetables, with at least one third of them being dark green or orange vegetables.

Denominator

The total number of survey respondents.

Healthy People Objective NWS-15:

Increase the variety and contribution of vegetables to the diets of the population aged 2 years and older
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category

Other Objectives

Increase the proportion of persons aged 18 years and older who consume at least 3 daily servings of vegetables. [[br]] '''Utah Target:''' 27.1%

How Are We Doing?

Only 17.3% of Utah adults reported eating three or more daily servings of vegetables in 2015 (age-adjusted rate). According to 2015 data, women have higher rates of having three or more servings of vegetables than men across every age group. Consumption of vegetables increases with education, with the highest daily consumption among college graduates (21.4%). Consumption varied by local health district in 2015. Utah County and Summit County reported higher statistically significant rates from the state. The lowest rates were seen for TriCounty, Southeast Utah, Central Utah, and Davis County, and was significantly lower than the state. The following small areas had significantly higher rates than the state: American Fork/Alpine (25.8%), Orem (West) (25.7%), Holladay (23.8%), SLC (Downtown) (23.5%), Pleasant Grove/Lindon (22.8%), and Riverton/Draper (21.2%). Small Areas that were significantly lower were Carbon/Emery Counties (9.7%), Clearfield/Hill AFB (12.6%), Juab/Millard/Sanpete Counties (12.6%), and TriCounty LHD (13.8%) for years 2013-2015 combined.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In the past, the percentage of Utah adults who reported eating three or more daily servings of vegetables was consistently below the U.S. percentage. There was no significant difference in Utah's percentage (17.3%) versus the U.S. (16.8%) in 2015.

What Is Being Done?

In 2013, through funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the Healthy Living through Environment, Policy, and Improved Clinical Care Program (EPICC) was established. Within Domain 2--Environmental Approaches that Promote Health--EPICC works: In Schools: # Schools are encouraged to apply for the Healthy Schools program through the Alliance for a Healthier Generation. Participation in this program assists schools to set up policy and environmental supports that make it easier for students and staff to be physically active and eat healthy food. # Height and weight trends are being tracked in a sample of elementary students to monitor Utah students. # Action for Healthy Kids brings partners together to improve nutrition and physical activity environments in Utah's schools by implementing the school-based state plan strategies, working with local school boards to improve or develop policies for nutritious foods in schools. This includes recommendations for healthy vending options. [[br]] [[br]] In Worksites: # The Utah Council for Worksite Health Promotion recognizes businesses that offer employee fitness and health promotion programs. # EPICC partners with local health departments to encourage worksites to complete the CDC Scorecard and participate in yearly health risk assessment for their employees. EPICC provides toolkits and other resources for employers interested in implementing wellness programs through the [http://choosehealth.utah.gov choosehealth.utah.gov] website: [http://www.choosehealth.utah.gov/worksites/wellness-programs.php] [[br]] [[br]] In Communities: # Local health departments (LHDs) receive federal funding to partner with schools, worksites, and other community based organizations to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables through farmers markets and retail stores. LHDs also work with cities within their jurisdictions to create a built environment that encourages physical activity.[[br]] [[br]] In Healthcare: # EPICC works with health care systems to establish community clinical linkages to support individuals at risk for or diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension to engage in lifestyle change programs such as chronic disease self-management and diabetes prevention programs.[[br]] [[br]] In Childcare: # LHDs statewide are implementing the TOP Star program, which aims to improve the nutrition and physical activity environments and achieve best practice in child care centers and homes. # EPICC works with state and local partners through the Childcare Obesity Prevention workgroup to implement policy and systems changes in early care and education across agencies statewide.

Evidence-based Practices

The EPICC program promotes evidence based practices collected by the Center TRT. The Center for Training and Research Translation (Center TRT) bridges the gap between research and practice and supports the efforts of public health practitioners working in nutrition, physical activity, and obesity prevention by: *Reviewing evidence of public health impact and disseminating population-level interventions; *Designing and providing practice-relevant training both in-person and web-based; *Addressing social determinants of health and health equity through training and translation efforts; and *Providing guidance on evaluating policies and programs aimed at impacting healthy eating and physical activity.[[br]] [[br]] Appropriate evidence based interventions can be found at:[[br]] [http://www.centertrt.org/?p=interventions_interventions_overview]

Available Services

Visit [http://www.choosehealth.utah.gov] for more information. The [http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ MyPlate] food guidance system provides consumer tools in English and Spanish to meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including individualized plans, tools to track intake, and plans for early childhood, pregnancy, and lactation. The [http://www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org/ Fruits & Veggies--More Matters], the [http://www.choosemyplate.gov/MyPlate/ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)] and [http://www.pbhfoundation.org/ Produce for Better Health] websites include a kids' site, educational brochures, recipes, and consumer tips for selecting, storing, and preparing vegetables.
Page Content Updated On 12/12/2016, Published on 12/27/2016
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Content updated: Tue, 27 Dec 2016 16:44:13 MST