DefinitionThe rape rate is reported as the number of rapes among Utah females per 100,000 population.
NumeratorNumber of reported rapes among females in Utah.
DenominatorTotal female population of Utah.
Data Interpretation IssuesStatistics vary because of differences in how rape is defined and how data is collected. A limitation to Uniform Crime Reporting data is that historically the definition used for rape was very narrow.
Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program Legacy Definition: Forcible rape is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults and attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded.
In 2013, the definition was revised to: Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.
To continue trends, the legacy definition was used, especially since there are only three years of data for the revised definition at this time. The rape rate includes only those that have been reported to law enforcement and is an underestimate of the actual rape rate.
Some law enforcement agencies do not submit a full 12 months of data and some agencies do not submit any data at all. The numerator of the rate is by county of occurrence, not county of residence.
Why Is This Important?Sexual violence in Utah is a serious public health problem affecting thousands of residents each year. Studies in Utah suggest that one in six women and one in 32 men experience rape or attempted rape during their lifetime^1^ and nearly one in three women will experience some form of sexual violence during their lives.^2, 3^
The costs resulting from sexual violence in 2011 totaled nearly $5 billion, almost $1,700 per Utah resident. The Utah state government spent more than $92 million on people known to have perpetrated sexual violence. Only $569,000 was spent on efforts to prevent sexual violence.^4^
Rape is the only violent crime in Utah that is higher than the national average. In a state where other violent crimes, such as homicide, robbery, or aggravated assault, is historically half to three times lower than the national average, this is of concern.^2^
1) Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. (2016). Sexual Violence [Data file]. Retrieved from: Utah Department of Health. [[br]]
2) Mitchell, C., Peterson, B. (2007). Rape in Utah. Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice. Accessed 10/6/2017: [https://justice.utah.gov/Documents/Research/SexOffender/RapeinUtah2007.pdf]. [[br]]
3) Smith, S.G., Chen, J., Basile, K.C., Gilbert, L.K., Merrick, M.T., Patel, N., Walling, M., & Jain, A. (2017). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010-2012 State Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: [https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/NISVS-StateReportBook.pdf]. [[br]]
4) Utah Violence and Injury Prevention Program. Costs of Sexual Violence in Utah 2015. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Department of Health, 2015 Retrieved from: [http://www.health.utah.gov/vipp/pdf/RapeSexualAssault/costs-sexual-violence-report.pdf].
Healthy People Objective IVP-40:(Developmental) Reduce sexual violence
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category
Other ObjectivesSubobjectives for Healthy People Objective IVP-40 include:
====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.1:====
(Developmental) Reduce rape or attempted rape[[br]]
'''State Target:''' 11.2 percent
====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.2:====
(Developmental) Reduce abusive sexual contact other than rape or attempted rape
====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.3:====
(Developmental) Reduce non-contact sexual abuse
How Are We Doing?Unfortunately, the majority of rapes (88.2%) are not reported to law enforcement.^1^ This clearly indicates that sexual violence rates are underestimated. Because we know that rape is underreported, it is difficult to gauge the magnitude of the problem using federal and state crime reports.
Among Utah female high school students, the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that 8.9% have been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to, and 5.9% of male high school students. National research estimates that eight out of ten rape victims report they were first raped before they turned 25, and four out of ten rape victims report they were first raped before their 18th birthday.^2^
From 2006 to 2015, Utah Department of Safety reported that Carbon, Duchesne, Grand, Salt Lake, Tooele, and Uintah counties had significantly higher reported rape rates than the state rate of 93.7 per 100,000 female population.^3^
Rape affects the quality of life and may have lasting consequences for victims. In the 2016 survey, 12.9% of respondents indicated that they experienced a form of sexual abuse as a child. This was significantly higher for females (15.2%) compared to males (6.6%).^4^ In 2016, those who report lifetime rape were significantly more likely to have seven or more poor mental health days (38.6% vs. 14.9%), miss more than seven days of work or activities (22.7% vs. 13.2%), have difficulty concentrating or remembering (19.4% vs. 7.9%), binge drink (18.2% vs. 13.39%), smoke every day (9.4% vs. 4.9%), have difficulty doing errands alone (12.5% vs. 3.3%), and have poor health (6.3% vs. 2.3%) compared to those who have not experienced lifetime rape.^4^
The 2016 Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System showed that the majority of rape victims (87.8%) previously knew their perpetrator, only 3.9% reported they were on a first date, 2% reported they knew the person for less than 24 hours, and 6.3% reported their perpetrator was a complete stranger.^4^
1) Mitchell, C., Peterson, B. (2007). Rape in Utah. Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice. Accessed 10/6/2017: [https://justice.utah.gov/Documents/Research/SexOffender/RapeinUtah2007.pdf]. [[br]]
2) Breiding, M. J., Smith, S. G., Basile, K. C., Walters, M. L., Chen, J., & Merrick, M. T. (2014, September 5). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization - National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63(SS08), 1-18. Retrieved from [https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6308a1.htm].[[br]]
3) Utah Department of Public Safety. Bureau of Criminal Identification CIU 2015. Salt Lake City, UT. Accessed: 10/25/2017: [https://bci.utah.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2017/09/2015-Crime-in-Utah-Final-1.pdf]. [[br]]
4) Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. (2016). Sexual Violence [Data file]. Retrieved from: Utah Department of Health.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?According to Uniform Crime Reports, the rape rate in Utah has been consistently higher than the U.S. rate. In 2015, Utah's reported rape rate was significantly higher than the U.S. rate at 74.6 per 100,000 females, compared to 55.2 per 100,000 females.^1^ Between 2013 and 2015, Utah's rape rate increased 17.5%.
1) U.S. Department of Justice (2015). Uniformed Crime Reporting Statistics. Accessed 10/2/2017: [https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/table-5].
What Is Being Done?The Utah Department of Health Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) and the Utah Coalition Against Sexual Assault (UCASA) collaborated in 1999 to enlist individuals, organizations, and agencies to participate in a statewide multi-disciplinary council addressing sexual violence. In 2003, the Utah Sexual Violence Council (USVC) was formed. The USVC is a multi-disciplinary, statewide advisory council that promotes a climate where sexual violence is addressed as a priority issue that impacts all Utah communities. Its vision is to change social norms and improve Utah's understanding of the overwhelming significance of this public health, social service, and criminal justice problem.
Since 2000, the VIPP has received Rape Prevention and Education Grants from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The intent of the grant is to ensure that community based organizations engage in collaborative efforts with the VIPP to provide rape primary prevention and education services.
In 2016 and 2017, the Utah State Legislature appropriated funds from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program, housed by the Utah Department of Workforce Services. These funds aim to expand the ongoing primary prevention efforts, by increasing the number of projects in underserved regions of the state, as well as increasing programming for underserved communities, including rural communities, tribal communities, LGBTQ populations, and underserved and high risk groups.
Programs and services in Utah focus on reducing risk factors for victimization and increasing protective factors for perpetrations.^1^ These factors are contributors and might not be a direct cause of victimization or perpetration. Some of the main primary prevention activities being implemented include healthy relationships education, consent education, and bystander intervention training, in addition to community-level approaches, such as coalition building and community mobilization. The risk of becoming a perpetrator of sexual violence is made up of a mixture of factors at the individual, relationship, community, and societal levels and as such, primary prevention efforts seek to address multiple levels to ensure comprehensive programming.
1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual Violence: Risk and Protective Factors. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention, 2017. Accessed 10/20/2017: [https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/sexualviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html].
Evidence-based PracticesFew programs have been shown to prevent sexual violence perpetration. A systematic review conducted by CDC's Injury Center has identified the following programs to be effective or promising ([https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/sexualviolence/prevention.html]):
*Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention
*Coaching Boys Into Men
*Bringing in the Bystander[[br]]
'''Stop SV:''' A Technical Package to Prevent Sexual Violence contains a select group of strategies based on the best available evidence to help communities and states focus prevention activities.[[br]]
The CDC recommends approaching sexual violence prevention by addressing risk and protective factors at various levels of the social ecology, especially when those risk and protective factors are shared between multiple forms of violence. Some of those risk and protective factors include: [[br]]
**Societal norms that support violence/sexual violence
**Adherence to traditional gender norms
**General tolerance of sexual violence within community
**Alcohol and drug use
**Involvement in violence/abusive relationships
**Social isolation/ lack of social support
**Association with sexually aggressive, hyper-masculine, and delinquent peers
**Hostility towards women
**Childhood history of physical, sexual, emotional abuse
**Suicidal thoughts and behavior
**Risky sexual behavior
**Traditional gender norms
**Association with Prosocial Peers
**Skills in solving problems in a non-violent manner
**Emotional health and connectedness
**Empathy and concern for how one's actions affect others
**Self-efficacy for bystander intervention
Also, for shared risk and protective factors, Connecting the Dots: [[br]][https://vetoviolence.cdc.gov/apps/connecting-the-dots/]
Health Program InformationThe Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) is a trusted and comprehensive resource for data related to violence and injury. Through education, this information helps promote partnerships and programs to prevent injuries and improve public health. VIPP goals are to a) focus prevention efforts on reducing intentional and unintentional injury, b) conduct education aimed at increasing awareness and changing behaviors that contribute to the occurrence of injury, c) strengthen local health department capacity to conduct local injury prevention programs, d) promote legislation, policy changes, and enforcement that will reduce injury hazards and increase safe behaviors, e) collaborate with private and public partners, and f) improve the Utah Department of Health capacity to collect mortality and morbidity data from multiple sources and conduct injury epidemiology for use in prevention planning, implementation, and evaluation.