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Complete Indicator Report of Student Injuries

Definition

The student injury rate is reported as the number of student injuries among kindergarten through 12th-graders in Utah schools per 1,000 students.

Numerator

The number of public school student injuries that meet criteria.

Denominator

The number of public school students enrolled in school.

Data Interpretation Issues

School injuries involving pre-schoolers and specialized schools, such as night classes, alternative schools, and special education schools, are not included. School years are defined as being in session between August 1 and July 31. No adjustment for year-round schools was made. School enrollment numbers for K-12 grades exclude self-contained special education, homebound, and hospitalized students.

Some Utah school districts are better than others at reporting injuries, which may make those schools appear to have more student injuries. In addition, student injury reporting forms are not submitted to the Violence and Injury Prevention Program at regular intervals, therefore, injury numbers from the previous school years may increase as forms are submitted.

Why Is This Important?

The Student Injury Reporting system is a critical piece of Utah's injury prevention efforts because it gives injury professionals timely data that identify where, when, how, and why students get injured at school. By using this information, education officials can pinpoint risk factors at individual schools and develop safety guidelines and prevention programs.

School-related injuries are a significant public health problem. Appropriate interventions and prevention programs can minimize the physical and financial impact of injury on the individual, family, school, and community.

Healthy People Objective IVP-26:

Reduce sports and recreation injuries
U.S. Target: 41.0 injuries per 1,000 population

Other Objectives

Healthy People 2020 Objective AH-5.6:
Decrease school absenteeism among adolescents due to illness or injury
-U.S. Target: 13.1%

Healthy People 2010 Objective IVP-27:
Increase the proportion of public and private schools that require students to wear appropriate protective gear when engaged in school-sponsored physical activities

IVP-27.1: Physical education
-U.S. Target: 84.5%

IVP 27.2: Intramural activities or physical activity clubs
-U.S. Target: 94.4%

Healthy People 2020 Objective IVP-34:
Reduce physical fighting among adolescents
-U.S. Target: 28.4%
-State Target: 25.4%

Healthy People 2020 Objective IVP-35:
Reduce bullying among adolescents
-U.S. Target: 17.9%
-State Target: 25.4%

Healthy People 2020 Objective IVP-36:
Reduce weapon carrying by adolescents on school property
-U.S. Target: 4.6%
-State Target: 14.4%

How Are We Doing?

In school year 2009-2010, the number of reported student injuries reached an all time low of 10.1 per 1,000 students.

From school years 2007-2008 to to 2009-2010, 6th graders had the highest percent of student injuries (10.5%). Females had the highest number of injuries in 8th grade (9.4%) while males had the highest number of injuries in 6th grade (11.3%). During this time frame, females accounted for 39.3% of the injuries while males accounted for 60.7%. Males had more injuries than females in every grade.

Injuries begin to decline among high school students. The majority of elementary school students (K-6th grade) are injured during lunch recess/recess while the majority of secondary school students (7th-12th grades) are injured during PE class.

A possible fracture or broken bone is the most common type of injury in both elementary and secondary schools.

How Do We Compare With U.S.?

On a national level, middle and high school students sustain more injuries than elementary school students. In Utah and across the nation, most grade school injuries occur on the playground and playfield. In contrast, sports injuries take the lead in secondary schools, as students enter competitive sports. It's also known that coaches tend to report injuries less often, making those kinds of activities appear safer than they may actually be.

From school years 2007-2008 to 2009-2010, the elementary school reported injury rate was 11.0 per 1,000 students (CI: 10.8-11.2) and the secondary school reported injury rate was 11.1 per 1,000 students (CI: 10.9-11.4).

What Is Being Done?

The Utah Department of Health (UDOH) began investigating school-related injures in 1982. However, since there was no uniform or standardized system for reporting and collecting student injury data, it was not possible to determine the frequency, nature, severity, or contributing factors of these injuries. Together with the Utah State Office of Education and local school districts, the UDOH developed the Student Injury Reporting (SIR) system to better identify school injury problems, implement interventions, and prevent injuries. The UDOH Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) is the current administrator of SIR. SIR was one of the first statewide school injury reporting systems developed in the United States. Since 1990, Utah schools have submitted reports on 126,685 criteria injuries for an average of 6,334 injuries per school year. But because there is no law that requires schools to report injuries, the VIPP estimates that the true number may actually be twice as high.

The following activities are underway to make Utahns more aware of the problem of school injury and of the importance of prevention:
1. Annual publication of a student injury report
2. Publication of articles in professional journals using school injury data
3. Continuing education and training on the web-based student injury reporting system for personnel responsible for completing school injury forms
4. Educating all school district superintendents regarding data findings
5. Maintaining an accurate and current school injury database
6. Providing current data to all who are interested

Available Services

VIPP can provide data, fact sheets, prevention tips, and other resources on a wide variety of school-related injury topics.

Violence and Injury Prevention Program
801-538-6864
http://health.utah.gov/vipp/

Other Program Information

The mission of the Violence and Injury Prevention Program is to promote the health of Utah citizens by working to reduce the incidence and severity of injuries and resultant deaths. Its goals are to a) focus prevention efforts on reducing intentional and unintentional injury, b) conduct education aimed at increasing awareness and changing behaviors that contribute to the occurrence of injury, c) strengthen local health department capacity to conduct local injury prevention programs, d) promote legislation, policy changes, and enforcement that will reduce injury hazards and increase safe behaviors, e) collaborate with private and public partners, and f) improve the Utah Department of Health capacity to collect mortality and morbidity data from multiple sources and conduct injury epidemiology for use in prevention planning, implementation, and evaluation.



Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

Pre-adolescents ages 10 to 14 are the group at highest risk of injuries.

Sources: Laflamme L, Menckel E, Aldenberg E. School-injury determinants and characteristics: developing an investigation instrument from a literature review. Accid Anal Prev. 1998;30:481-495.

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Risk Factors

In younger students, it has been found that playground injuries are more common while organized sports become more likely to cause injuries as age increases. There are many factors that put students at risk for injuries, such as poor monitoring and supervision of children, risk-taking behaviors among students, poor decision making skills among students, inadequately maintained equipment, lack of staff awareness of injury prevention, lack of athletic conditioning, and lack of knowledge of appropriate safety procedures.

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

According to a 1998 study in the American Journal of Public Health, approximately 3.7 million students aged 5 to 19 are injured at school severely enough to require medical attention or to limit activity.

Source: Miller TR, Spicer RS. How safe are our schools? Am J Public Health. 1998;88:413-418.

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Number of Student Injuries per 1,000 Students by School Year, Utah, 2000-01 to 2009-10

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confidence limits

School Year Student Injuries per 1,000 Students Lower Limit Upper Limit Numer- ator Denom- inator
Record Count: 10
00-01 13.6 13.3 13.9 6,448 474,732
01-02 13.3 13.0 13.6 6,341 477,160
02-03 13.0 12.7 13.3 6,232 479,617
03-04 13.4 13.1 13.8 6,493 483,685
04-05 12.4 12.1 12.7 6,054 489,445
05-06 12.0 11.7 12.3 5,973 498,484
06-07 11.7 11.4 12.0 5,892 504,792
07-08 11.7 11.4 12.0 6,035 515,457
08-09 11.3 11.0 11.6 5,926 523,644
09-10 10.1 9.8 10.4 5,346 529,107

Data Notes

The criteria for reporting school injuries is that the injury caused the loss of at least one-half day of school and/or warranted medical attention and treatment from a school nurse, physician, or other health care provider.

Data Sources

Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion, Violence and Injury Prevention Program. Utah State Office of Education.



Percentage of Student Injuries by Sex and Grade, Utah, 2007-08 to 2009-10

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Males vs. Females Grade in School Percentage of Student Injuries
Record Count: 39
Male Kindergarten 4.1%
Male 1st 8.2%
Male 2nd 7.3%
Male 3rd 7.4%
Male 4th 8.0%
Male 5th 9.6%
Male 6th 11.3%
Male 7th 9.7%
Male 8th 10.0%
Male Grade 9 8.4%
Male Grade 10 6.2%
Male Grade 11 5.0%
Male Grade 12 4.8%
Female Kindergarten 4.2%
Female 1st 9.1%
Female 2nd 7.9%
Female 3rd 7.9%
Female 4th 9.0%
Female 5th 9.3%
Female 6th 9.3%
Female 7th 8.0%
Female 8th 9.4%
Female Grade 9 7.9%
Female Grade 10 6.9%
Female Grade 11 5.8%
Female Grade 12 5.4%
Total Kindergarten 4.2%
Total 1st 8.5%
Total 2nd 7.6%
Total 3rd 7.6%
Total 4th 8.4%
Total 5th 9.5%
Total 6th 10.5%
Total 7th 9.0%
Total 8th 9.8%
Total Grade 9 8.2%
Total Grade 10 6.5%
Total Grade 11 5.3%
Total Grade 12 5.0%

Data Notes

The criteria for reporting school injuries is that the injury caused the loss of at least one-half day of school and/or warranted medical attention and treatment from a school nurse, physician, or other health care provider.

Data Sources

Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion, Violence and Injury Prevention Program.



Percentage of Student Injuries by School Period and School Type, Utah, 2007-08 to 2009-10

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confidence limits

Elem vs Secondary Schools School Period Percentage of Student Injuries
Record Count: 30
Elementary Schools Before/After School 9.7%
Elementary Schools Athletic Events 0.3%
Elementary Schools Class Change 1.5%
Elementary Schools Class Time 8.5%
Elementary Schools Field Trip 1.9%
Elementary Schools Lunch 1.7%
Elementary Schools Lunch Recess 32.7%
Elementary Schools Recess 32.7%
Elementary Schools PE Class 9.6%
Elementary Schools Other 1.4%
Secondary Schools Before/After School 9.4%
Secondary Schools Athletic Events 7.9%
Secondary Schools Class Change 7.7%
Secondary Schools Class Time 22.9%
Secondary Schools Field Trip 1.1%
Secondary Schools Lunch 5.0%
Secondary Schools Lunch Recess 6.2%
Secondary Schools Recess 0.1%
Secondary Schools PE Class 37.5%
Secondary Schools Other 2.3%

Data Notes

The criteria for reporting school injuries is that the injury caused the loss of at least one-half day of school and/or warranted medical attention and treatment from a school nurse, physician, or other health care provider.   Elementary schools consist of Kindergarten through 6th grades. Secondary schools consist of 7th through 12th grades.

Data Sources

Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion, Violence and Injury Prevention Program.



Percentage of Student Injuries by Injury Type, Utah, 2007-08 to 2009-10

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Injury Type Percentage of Student Injuries
Record Count: 13
Abrasion/Scrape 1.9%
Bump/Bruise/Contusion 10.7%
Possible Concussion 5.1%
Cut/Laceration 20.7%
Possible Dislocation 3.5%
Possible Fracture/Broken 34.3%
Loss of Consciousness 1.1%
No Pulse/Heartbeat 0.0%
Pain/Tenderness 3.2%
Puncture 1.9%
Sprain/Strain/Tear 11.3%
Swelling/Inflammation 1.7%
Other 4.1%

Data Notes

The criteria for reporting school injuries is that the injury caused the loss of at least one-half day of school and/or warranted medical attention and treatment from a school nurse, physician, or other health care provider.

Data Sources

Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion, Violence and Injury Prevention Program.


References and Community Resources

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/playgr.htm

Safe Child
http://safechild.org/

Kids Health
http://www.kidshealth.org/

Children's Safety Network
http://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org/

National SAFE KIDS Campaign
http://www.safekids.org/

National Center for Sports Safety
http://www.sportssafety.org/

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 11/02/2011, Published on 12/12/2011
The information provided above is from the Utah Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.utah.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: "Retrieved Thu, 30 October 2014 6:56:22 from Utah Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.utah.gov".

Content updated: Tue, 19 Nov 2013 23:09:26 MST