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Complete Health Indicator Report of Seat Belts: Safety Restraint Use

Definition

Percentage of '''drivers and front seat passengers observed using safety restraints''' in Utah as part of the National Occupant Protection Use Survey conducted by the Utah Highway Safety Office. The survey uses data collected by Utah Highway Patrol Officers at intersections, highway ramps, and parking lots.

Numerator

Number of persons observed using restraints.

Denominator

Number of persons observed.

Data Interpretation Issues

Based on national criteria, 17 counties were selected for the 2017 Utah Safety Belt Observational Survey, a practice that began in 2012 (Utah Safety Belt Observational Survey, August 2013 Report). Previously, only the 6 most populous counties were included. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued new Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use. The final rule was published in the Federal Register Vol. 76 No. 63, April 1, 2011, Rules and Regulations, pp. 18042 - 18059. The Utah Plan was accepted as fully compliant with the Uniform Criteria and was used for the implementation of Utah's seat belt surveys beginning in 2012. The Utah Highway Safety Office stratified roadway segments by functional classification (Interstate/Primary, Arterial/Secondary, and Local). This allowed for stratification of road segments and to employ a systematic probability proportional to size (PPS) sample, to select the road segments to be used as observation sites. Utah is composed of 29 counties, 17 of which accounted for about 90.2% of the passenger vehicle crash-related fatalities during 2013 to 2015. Therefore, sample sites were drawn from all 17 counties for inclusion in the survey. A random, systematic sample of 10 road segments were selected PPS within each sampled county. This process resulted in the selection of 170 road segments (17 counties x 10 sites per county). According to federal guidelines, the reliability of the survey results should be within the 95 percent confidence interval. For the 2017 survey the standard error was determined to be 0.025. The data were analyzed and found to be well within a standard error of 2.5 percentage points as required by NHTSA guidelines.

Why Is This Important?

Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are one of the leading causes of injury death and hospitalization in Utah. '''Seat belts are the single most effective safety device''' for preventing serious injuries and reducing fatalities in MVCs, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In Utah, for 2016, an estimated 107 lives were saved because of restraint use and an estimated 40 additional lives would have been saved if everyone had been wearing seat belts. NHTSA has found that '''deaths and serious injuries''' caused by MVCs could be '''reduced by approximately 50 percent''' with proper and consistent use of safety belts. NHTSA also found that if all 50 states achieved 90 percent seat belt usage, it would result in an overall total cost savings of $5.5 billion.^1^ Unbuckled passengers can also become a projectile and increase the risk of hurting or killing others in the car by 40 percent.^2^ Ejection from the vehicle is one of the most injurious events that can happen to a person in a crash. In Utah, for 2016, unrestrained crash occupants were 240 times more likely to be ejected from a motor vehicle and 24 times more likely to be killed than restrained crash occupants.^3^ [[br]][[br]] ---- #NHTSA, [http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pubs/811140.pdf Traffic Safety Facts] #[http://ut.zerofatalities.com/behaviors/not-buckling-up/ Utah Zero Fatalities] #Utah Crash Summary 2016, Utah Department of Public Safety

Healthy People Objective IVP-15:

Increase use of safety belts
U.S. Target: 92.0 percent
State Target: 92.4 percent

Other Objectives

'''Other Healthy People 2020 objectives:'''[[br]] IVP-16: Increase age-appropriate vehicle restraint system use in children[[br]] *16.1: Aged 0 to 12 months **U.S. Baseline: 86% of children aged 0 to 12 months were restrained in rear-facing child safety seats in 2008 **'''U.S. Target:''' 95% (10% improvement) **Utah Baseline: Ages 0-4: 93.1% child restraint usage (2008 Utah Safety Belt Observational Survey) **'''Utah Target:''' Ages 0-4: 98% child restraint usage (5% improvement - highest was in 2001 at 97.1%)[[br]] [[br]] *16.2: Aged 1 to 3 years **U.S. Baseline: 72% of children aged 1 to 3 years were restrained in front-facing child safety seats in 2008 **'''U.S. Target:''' 79% (10% improvement) **Utah Baseline: Ages 0-4: 93.1% child restraint usage (2008 Utah Safety Belt Observational Survey) **'''Utah Target:''' Ages 0-4: 98% child restraint usage (5% improvement - highest was in 2001 at 97.1%)[[br]] [[br]] *16.3: Aged 4 to 7 years **U.S. Baseline: 43% of children aged 4 to 7 years were restrained in booster seats in 2008 **'''U.S. Target:''' 47% (10% improvement) **Utah Baseline: Ages 5-8: 45.7% booster seat usage in motor vehicle crashes (2008 Utah Crash Summary Report) **'''Utah Target:''' Ages 5-8: 50.2% child restraint usage (10% improvement)

How Are We Doing?

In 2017, the observed seat belt usage was '''88.8%''' overall for the 17 counties included in the study. In 2017 the 'urban' counties of Cache, Davis, Salt Lake, Utah, Washington, and Weber were analyzed separately from the 'rural' counties. The seat belt usage rate for the urban counties was 91.0% and 82.7% for the rural counties. The 2016 Utah Crash Summary published by the Department of Public Safety reports percentages of children ages 0-8 using child safety seats. The child safety seat usage for 0-4 year-olds is 85.8%. Of concern is the drastically lower percentage (42.9%) of child safety seat usage among 5-8 year-olds, indicating children are moved to adult-sized seat belts prematurely. For 0-8 year-olds, the usage of child safety seats in 2016 was 68.4%, an increase in usage compared to the previous year (66.8% in 2015).

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

In 2016, the Utah death rate per 100 million vehicle miles traveled was 0.91 which was lower than the 2015 U.S. rate of 1.12 (Utah Crash Summary 2016, Utah Department of Public Safety).

What Is Being Done?

The Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) provides funding to Utah's 13 local health departments to implement motor vehicle safety programs and Safe Kids coalitions/chapters activities. These programs focus on child passenger safety and teen driving. The VIPP partners with the Utah Teen Driving Safety Task Force, Zero Fatalities Program, and Utah Highway Safety Office, among other state and local agencies to prevent motor vehicle crash deaths. For the past eight years, a book has been published that tells the stories of teens who died in motor vehicle-related crashes. The book is distributed to each drivers education instructor in the state as a prevention tool. The books can be downloaded at [http://www.health.utah.gov/vipp/teens/teen-driving] or [http://www.dontdrivestupid.com]. The Utah Department of Transportation's Zero Fatalities Program ([http://ut.zerofatalities.com/]) is a comprehensive, educational campaign aimed at reducing Utah's top five causes of traffic related deaths: not buckling up, drowsy driving, impaired driving, distracted driving, and aggressive driving. Effective May 12, 2015, Utah's seat belt law becomes a '''primary enforcement law'''. Primary seat belt laws allow law enforcement officers to ticket a driver for not wearing a seat belt without any other traffic offense taking place. All vehicle occupants must wear seat belts and children ages 8 and younger must be properly restrained in a car seat or booster seat. In 2000, the Utah Legislature upgraded the law to make child safety seat use mandatory for children through age four. In 2008, the Utah Legislature enacted a booster seat law, requiring children younger than 8 years of age to use an appropriate child restraint device like a car seat or a booster seat. Previously, the law required only children under age of 5 to use an approved child restraint device. The new law now protects children from 5 up to 8 years of age through use of a booster seat or car seat. However, children younger than 8 who are at least 57 inches tall are exempt from the law and may use a regular seat belt.

Available Services

Call 1-888-DASH-2-DOT or visit [http://cert.safekids.org/] to locate the certified child passenger safety technician nearest you. Violence and Injury Prevention Program, Utah Department of Health[[br]] 801-538-6141[[br]] [http://health.utah.gov/vipp] Safe Kids Utah[[br]] Service provided: child safety seat inspection, booster seat inspection[[br]] 801-538-6852[[br]] [http://www.safekidsutah.org] Zero Fatalities Program[[br]] [http://ut.zerofatalities.com/] Utah Highway Safety Office[[br]] 801-293-2480[[br]] [http://highwaysafety.utah.gov/] Utah Safety Council[[br]] Service provided: defensive driving course[[br]] 801-262-5400[[br]] [http://www.utahsafetycouncil.org] Intermountain Injury Control Research Center[[br]] 801-585-9157[[br]] [http://medicine.utah.edu/pediatrics/critical_care/research/iicrc.php][[br]] [[br]] [[br]] '''NATIONAL WEB SITES:''' Governors Highway Safety Association[[br]] [http://www.ghsa.org/] National Center for Injury Prevention and Control[[br]] [http://www.cdc.gov/injury/index.html] National Highway Transportation Safety Administration[[br]] [http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/] Safe Kids USA[[br]] [https://www.safekids.org/] Children's Safety Network[[br]] [http://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org] U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission[[br]] [http://www.cpsc.gov/] A comprehensive auto safety page with many useful links:[[br]] [http://www.lelandwest.com/comprehensive-auto-safety-guide.cfm]

Health Program Information

The Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) is a trusted and comprehensive resource for data related to violence and injury. Through education, this information helps promote partnerships and programs to prevent injuries and improve public health. VIPP goals are to: #Focus prevention efforts on reducing intentional and unintentional injury #Conduct education aimed at increasing awareness and changing behaviors that contribute to the occurrence of injury #Strengthen local health department capacity to conduct local injury prevention programs #Promote legislation, policy changes, and enforcement that will reduce injury hazards and increase safe behaviors #Collaborate with private and public partners #Improve the Utah Department of Health capacity to collect mortality and morbidity data from multiple sources and conduct injury epidemiology for use in prevention planning, implementation, and evaluation.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

According to 2017 observational surveys of seat belt use, Utah males (86.8%) are less likely than females (91.3%) to wear a seat belt. Seat belt usage rates are considerably higher in urban counties than rural counties. SUV (90.9%) and van (93.4%) occupants had the highest overall seat belt usage. The difference in percentages between urban and rural counties was largest for trucks (85.8% urban and 73.0% rural).

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

Lack of automobile seat belt use is related to hospital emergency room visits and hospital admissions due to motor vehicle crash injuries.

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

Failure to use seat belts increases the risk of motor vehicle crash injury and death.

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Overall Safety Belt Use Rate: Adult and Front Seat Passenger, Utah, 1990-2017

::chart - missing::

In 2017 the observed seat belt usage was '''88.8%''' overall for all 17 counties. These 17 counties accounted for 90.2% of motor vehicle traffic crash-related fatalities in which the victim was an occupant of a vehicle according to data from the Utah Death Certificate Database for the period 2013-2015.
Seatbelt Study CriteriaYearPercentage of Persons Restrained
Record Count: 33
6 County Study199039.2%
6 County Study199141.9%
6 County Study199250.4%
6 County Study199349.7%
6 County Study199453.2%
6 County Study199555.7%
6 County Study199660.1%
6 County Study199762.9%
6 County Study199866.7%
6 County Study199967.4%
6 County Study200075.7%
6 County Study200177.8%
6 County Study200280.1%
6 County Study200385.2%
6 County Study200485.7%
6 County Study200586.9%
6 County Study200688.6%
6 County Study200786.8%
6 County Study200886.0%
6 County Study200986.1%
6 County Study201089.0%
6 County Study201189.2%
17 County Study201281.9%
17 County Study201382.4%
17 County Study201483.4%
17 County Study201587.2%
17 County Study201687.9%
17 County Study201788.8%
100% Goal2013100.0%
100% Goal2014100.0%
100% Goal2015100.0%
100% Goal2016100.0%
100% Goal2017100.0%

Data Notes

Beginning in 2012, the Utah Highway Safety Office began to observe front seat passengers of 17 counties whereas in earlier years observations were conducted in only the six most populous counties.

Data Sources

  • Utah Safety Belt Observational Survey, Utah Highway Safety Office
  • Intermountain Injury Control Research Center


Safety Belt Use Rate by Year, Utah Adults, 2010-2016

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

As part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, Utah adults were asked about their seat belt use when driving or riding in a car. In 2016, '''94.9%''' of Utah participants reported that they '''always or nearly always use seat belts'''. The remaining 5.1% of respondents stated that they used seat belts only sometimes, seldom, or never. These rates have remained steady since 2010.
YearAge-adjusted Percentage of AdultsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 7
201093.2%92.6%93.8%11,17311,930
201193.3%92.7%93.8%11,14311,934
201292.5%91.7%93.2%11,18211,978
201393.2%92.6%93.8%10,94111,683
201493.2%92.7%93.7%13,28514,215
201594.0%93.4%94.5%9,84310,461
201694.9%94.3%95.4%9,80310,384

Data Notes

Age-adjusted to U.S. 2000 standard population.

Data Source

Utah Data: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Office of Public Health Assessment, Utah Department of Health


Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Restrained: Six Large-Population and Eleven Small-Population Counties, Utah, 2017

::chart - missing::

Rural counties typically have lower percentages of seat belt usage than the larger urban counties. The ''Utah Rural Safety Belt Use Survey, September 2017 Report'' ([https://highwaysafety.utah.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/22/2016/01/2017-Survey-Report-Basic1.pdf Utah Department of Public Safety]) shows a '''8 percentage point difference''' in seat belt use between urban (91.0%) and rural (82.7%) areas in Utah. In 2016, the difference in the overall rate of seat belt usage for urban counties (90.5%) and rural counties (78.5%) was larger.
CountyPercentage of Persons
Record Count: 28
Davis95.6%
Weber93.7%
Cache95.3%
Salt Lake94.2%
Utah91.9%
Washington87.3%
-**
Summit91.2%
Box Elder94.2%
Tooele93.9%
Sevier76.1%
Grand85.3%
Iron83.3%
Sanpete72.3%
Millard82.5%
Carbon87.9%
San Juan65.7%
Uintah78.5%

Data Notes

Beginning in 2012 the Utah Department of Public Safety conducted observational surveys in 17 Utah counties.

Data Sources

  • Utah Safety Belt Observational Survey, Utah Highway Safety Office
  • Intermountain Injury Control Research Center


Seat Belts: Use by County and Sex, 17 Utah Counties, 2017

::chart - missing::

Overall, 91.3% of females were belted compared to 86.8% of males.
Males vs. FemalesCountyPercentage of Persons
Record Count: 36
MaleDavis86.7%
MaleWeber90.9%
MaleCache88.9%
MaleSalt Lake91.2%
MaleUtah88.1%
MaleWashington79.3%
Male-**
MaleSummit88.4%
MaleBox Elder88.1%
MaleTooele79.8%
MaleSevier72.3%
MaleGrand81.4%
MaleIron69.4%
MaleSanpete64.4%
MaleMillard91.7%
MaleCarbon82.8%
MaleSan Juan69.5%
MaleUintah65.6%
FemaleDavis95.6%
FemaleWeber93.7%
FemaleCache95.3%
FemaleSalt Lake94.2%
FemaleUtah91.9%
FemaleWashington87.3%
Female-**
FemaleSummit91.2%
FemaleBox Elder94.2%
FemaleTooele93.9%
FemaleSevier76.1%
FemaleGrand85.3%
FemaleIron83.3%
FemaleSanpete72.3%
FemaleMillard82.5%
FemaleCarbon87.9%
FemaleSan Juan65.7%
FemaleUintah78.5%

Data Notes

In the 2017 report, Cache, Davis, Salt Lake, Utah, Washington, and Weber counties were all classified as 'urban'.

Data Sources

  • Utah Safety Belt Observational Survey, Utah Highway Safety Office
  • Intermountain Injury Control Research Center


Likelihood of Injury and Death: Risks for Belted and Unbelted Occupants in a Motor Vehicle Crash, Utah, 2016

::chart - missing::

Over 97% of persons who survived a crash reported being restrained. Unrestrained crash occupants were 190 times more likely to be ejected from a motor vehicle and 49 times more likely to be killed than restrained crash occupants.
Seatbelt UseInjury SeverityPercent ChanceNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 9
BeltedNo Injury84.4%116,526138,117
BeltedInjury15.6%21,508138,117
BeltedDeath0.1%83138,117
Not BeltedNo Injury62.3%1,5302,456
Not BeltedInjury34.4%8462,456
Not BeltedDeath3.3%802,456

Data Source

Utah Crash Summary, Department of Public Safety, Highway Safety Office


Adolescent Seat Belt Use: Percentage of Students Who Never or Rarely Wore a Seat Belt, Utah and U.S., 1991-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

As part of the Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, high school students were asked about their seat belt use when riding in a car driven by someone else. The year 2001 was the most recent year Utah saw a significant decrease in teens reporting never or rarely wearing seat belts (nonuse). Utah teen seat belt use has remained fairly steady since 2001 with nonuse ranging from between 5.6 percent and 7.7 percent. Nationally, teen seatbelt use has improved since 2003 and there has been no significant difference between reported Utah and national teen seat belt usage since 2009. Utah's all-time low for teen seat belt non-use occurred in 2003 and 2013 (5.6%) while the national all-time low occurred in 2015 (6.1%). 2015 YRBS data for Utah are not available.
Utah vs. U.S.YearPercentage of High School StudentsLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 25
Utah199126.6%23.9%29.3%
Utah199321.4%19.4%23.4%Decreased
Utah199519.3%17.2%21.4%No Change
Utah199716.6%12.9%20.3%No Change
Utah199912.3%9.7%15.4%No Change1,505
Utah20017.5%6.1%9.1%Decreased1,053
Utah20035.6%4.1%7.5%No Change1,446
Utah20055.9%4.5%7.7%No Change1,541
Utah20076.0%4.9%7.4%No Change1,969
Utah20097.7%5.9%9.9%No Change1,590
Utah20116.5%5.2%8.0%No Change1,606
Utah20135.6%4.7%6.6%No Change2,146
U.S.199125.9%20.8%31.7%12,257
U.S.199319.1%16.6%21.9%No Change16,275
U.S.199521.7%18.4%25.4%No Change10,893
U.S.199719.3%16.0%23.0%No Change16,245
U.S.199916.4%13.7%19.4%No Change15,302
U.S.200114.1%12.5%15.9%No Change13,502
U.S.200318.2%14.3%22.9%No Change15,107
U.S.200510.2%8.4%12.0%Decreased13,892
U.S.200711.1%8.9%13.8%No Change13,892
U.S.20099.7%8.2%11.4%No Change16,220
U.S.20117.7%6.5%9.1%15,425
U.S.20137.6%6.4%9.1%
U.S.20156.1%4.9%7.6%

Data Notes

The Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System includes national, state, and local school-based surveys of representative samples of 9th through 12th grade students. These surveys are conducted every two years, usually during the spring semester. The national survey, conducted by the U.S. Center for Disease Control, provides data representative of high school students in public and private schools in the United States. The state and local surveys, conducted by departments of health and education, provide data representative of public high school students in each state or local school district.

Data Sources

  • Utah Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Utah Department of Health
  • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


Seat Belts: Use by County and Vehicle Type, 17 Utah Counties, 2017

::chart - missing::

In 2017 in Utah, seat belt use varied by vehicle type. Most SUV occupants used a seat belt (90.9%), as did van occupants (93.4%) and car occupants (90.4%). Seat belt use for truck occupants was 81.5%. For all types of vehicles, urban counties had higher percentages of seat belt use compared to rural counties. The difference in percentages between urban and rural counties was largest for trucks (85.8% urban and 73.0% rural).
Urban vs. Other CountiesVehicle TypePercentage of Persons
Record Count: 8
Urban CountiesCar91.8%
Urban CountiesSUV92.5%
Urban CountiesTruck85.8%
Urban CountiesVan94.5%
Other CountiesCar85.3%
Other CountiesSUV86.9%
Other CountiesTruck73.0%
Other CountiesVan90.2%

Data Sources

  • Intermountain Injury Control Research Center
  • Utah Safety Belt Observational Survey, Utah Highway Safety Office

References and Community Resources

References: * [http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pubs/811140.pdf NHTSA's National Center for Statistics and Analysis, Traffic Safety Facts] ~ Research Note, ''The Increase in Lives Saves, Injuries Prevented, and Cost Savings if Seat Belt Use Rose to at least 90 Percent in All States'', May 2009 (DOT HS 811 140). *State of Utah Department of Public Safety, Utah Highway Safety Office, '''[https://highwaysafety.utah.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/22/2016/01/2017-Survey-Report-Basic1.pdf 2017 Utah Seat Belt Use Survey Report ]''' *State of Utah Department of Public Safety, Utah Highway Safety Office,''' [https://highwaysafety.utah.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/22/2017/10/UtahCrashSummary2016.pdf Utah Crash Summary 2016]''' *[http://ibis.health.utah.gov/query/selection/brfss/BRFSSSelection.html Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data ] *[http://zero-ut-2015.pennapowers.co/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Utahs_law_to_save_lives.pdf The Facts About Not Buckling Up], State of Utah Department of Transportation, Zero Fatalities.

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 10/31/2017, Published on 11/15/2017
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 15 July 2018 13:32:48 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 13:17:12 MST