Complete Indicator Report of Rape
DefinitionThe rape rate is reported as the number of rapes among Utah females per 100,000 population.
NumeratorNumber of reported rapes among females in Utah.
DenominatorTotal female population of Utah.
Data Interpretation IssuesStatistics vary because of differences in how rape is defined and how data is collected. A limitation to Uniform Crime Reporting data is that the definition used for rape is very narrow. Cases are defined as penile-vaginal penetration of a female forcibly and against her will, therefore other types of rape as defined by federal law are not reported. The numerator of the rate is by county of occurrence, not county of residence.
Why Is This Important?Sexual violence in Utah is a serious public health problem affecting thousands of residents each year. Studies in Utah indicate that one in eight women and one in 50 men will experience rape in their lifetimes and nearly one in three women will experience some form of sexual violence during their lives.
Utah ranks 19th in the nation for reported forcible rapes. Rape is the only violent crime in Utah that is higher than the national average. In a state where other violent crimes, such as homicide, robbery, or aggravated assault, is historically half to three times lower than the national average, this is of concern.
Rape affects the quality of life and may have lasting consequences for victims. The 2010 Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System showed that rape victims had a significantly higher prevalence in reporting that they were not satisfied with life (14.7% vs. 4.8%), didn't receive the social and emotional support they need (33.8% vs. 13.2%), had fair or poor health (25.9% vs. 10.7%), and were limited in activities because of physical, mental, or emotional problems (39.2% vs. 19.7%).
Furthermore, females were significantly more likely to report sexual violence adverse childhood experiences compared to males. Females were twice as likely to report being touched sexually by an adult or forced to sexually touch an adult as a child compared to males. Females were seven times more likely to report being raped as a child compared to males.
The impact of sexual violence on the community is costly. At $127 billion per year, rape has the highest annual victim costs of any crime.
1) Utah Health Status Update, Sexual Violence, April 2008, (accessed 1/15/2013) http://health.utah.gov/opha/publications/hsu/08Apr_SexualViolence.pdf
2) Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice, 2007 Rape in Utah Survey, (accessed 1/15/2013) http://nomoresecrets.utah.gov/Documents/RapeinUtah2007.pdf
3) Utah Health Status Update, Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health, July 2011, (accessed 1/15/2013) http://health.utah.gov/opha/publications/hsu/11Jul_ACE.pdf
4) U.S. Department of Justice, Victim Costs and Consequences: A New Look, 1996.
Healthy People Objective IVP-40:(Developmental) Reduce sexual violence
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category
Other ObjectivesHealthy People 2020 IVP-40.1:
(Developmental) Reduce rape or attempted rape
UT Target: 11.2%
Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.2:
(Developmental) Reduce abusive sexual contact other than rape or attempted rape
Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.3:
(Developmental) Reduce non-contact sexual abuse
How Are We Doing?From 2002 to 2011, Utah Uniform Crime Reports show that Salt Lake and Tooele counties had a significantly higher reported rape rate than the state rate of 70.3 per 100,000 female population. Davis, Summit, Cache, Washington, Utah, Juab, San Juan, Wasatch, Sanpete, Beaver*, Morgan*, and Emery* counties had significantly lower reported rapes than the state.
Unfortunately the majority of rapes (88.2%) are not reported to law enforcement according to the 2007 Rape in Utah Survey. This clearly indicates that sexual violence rates are underestimated. Because we know that rape is underreported, it is difficult to gauge the magnitude of the problem using federal and state crime reports.
The 2010 Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) sexual violence data revealed that 12.2% of adult females and 1.2% of adult males experienced rape or attempted rape in their lifetime. According to the 2007 Rape in Utah survey, 78.7% of females reported that their first sexual assault occurred before their 18th birthday.
In addition, the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that 9.3% of Utah female high school students have been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to, compared to 6.5% of male high school students.
*Use caution when interpreting results, estimate is unreliable.
How Do We Compare With U.S.?According to Uniform Crime Reports, the rape rate in Utah has been consistently higher than the U.S. rate. In 2011, Utah's reported rape rate was significantly higher than the U.S. rate (62.2 and 52.7 per 100,000 females).
What Is Being Done?The Utah Department of Health Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) and the Utah Coalition Against Sexual Assault (UCASA) collaborated in 1999 to enlist individuals, organizations, and agencies to participate in a statewide multi-disciplinary council addressing sexual violence. In 2003, the Utah Sexual Violence Council (USVC) was formed. The USVC is a multi-disciplinary, statewide advisory council that promotes a climate where sexual violence is addressed as a priority issue that impacts all Utah communities. Its vision is to change social norms and improve Utah's understanding of the overwhelming significance of this public health, social service, and criminal justice problem.
Since 2000, the VIPP has received Rape Prevention and Education Grants from the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The intent of the grant is to ensure that UCASA, as well as rape recovery centers and other community based organizations, engage in collaborative efforts with the VIPP to provide rape primary prevention and education services.
Available ServicesStatewide 24-hour Rape and Sexual Assault Crisis and Information Line
Box Elder, Cache, Rich Counties
YCU Box Elder 435-723-5600
Davis, Weber, Morgan Counties
Safe Harbor 801-444-3191
YCC, Ogden 801-394-9456
Salt Lake, Summit, Tooele Counties
University of Utah Women's Resource Center 801-581-8030
Rape Recovery Center 801-467-7282
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Victim Advocacy 435-843-3429
Peace House 435-647-9161
Juab, Millard, Utah, Wasatch Counties
Center for Women and Children in Crisis 801-356-2511
Iron, Beaver, Washington Counties
Cedar City-Canyon Creek Women's Crisis Center 435-867-9411
Dove Center 435-628-1204
Sevier, Wayne, Piute, Garfield, Kane Counties
New Horizons Crisis Center 435-896-9294
Carbon, San Juan, Emery, Grand Counties
Uintah, Daggett, Duchesne Counties
Vernal Victim Advocates 435-789-4250
Other Program InformationThe Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) is a trusted and comprehensive resource for data related to violence and injury. Through education, this information helps promote partnerships and programs to prevent injuries and improve public health. VIPP goals are to a) focus prevention efforts on reducing intentional and unintentional injury, b) conduct education aimed at increasing awareness and changing behaviors that contribute to the occurrence of injury, c) strengthen local health department capacity to conduct local injury prevention programs, d) promote legislation, policy changes, and enforcement that will reduce injury hazards and increase safe behaviors, e) collaborate with private and public partners, and f) improve the Utah Department of Health capacity to collect mortality and morbidity data from multiple sources and conduct injury epidemiology for use in prevention planning, implementation, and evaluation.
Relevant Population CharacteristicsNationally, nearly 1 in 5 women and 1 in 71 men reported experiencing rape at some time in their lives.
Among high school students, 12.5% of American Indian/Alaska Natives, 10.5% of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander students, 8.6% of Black students, 8.2% of Hispanic students, 7.4% of White students, and 13.5% of multiple-race students reported that they were forced to have sexual intercourse at some time in their lives.
Among adult women surveyed in 2010, 26.9% of American Indian/Alaska Natives, 22% of non-Hispanic Blacks, 18.8% of non-Hispanic Whites, 14.6% of Hispanics, and 35.5% of women of multiple races experienced an attempted or a completed rape at some time in their lives.
Source: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance (accessed 03/21/2013) http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/SV-DataSheet-a.pdf
Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:
Health Care System FactorsAccording to the 2007 Rape in Utah Survey, only 12.7% of sexual assaults resulted in a visit to a doctor or medical center for an examination after the incident. Victims say they do not seek medical attention because they were not injured, they were too young to ask for help, they were afraid someone would find out what happened, and they were not thinking clearly. The main reasons for seeking medical care after a sexual assault were to be checked for a sexually transmitted infection, pregnancy, or to receive emergency contraception.
Source: Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice, 2007 Rape in Utah Survey (accessed 01/15/2013), http://www.nomoresecrets.utah.gov/Documents/RapeinUtah2007.pdf
Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:
Risk FactorsResearch has identified the following risk factors for sexual violence perpetration: alcohol and drug use, impulsive and antisocial tendencies, hostility towards women, history of sexual abuse as a child, witnessing family violence as a child, associating with sexually aggressive and delinquent peers, strongly patriarchal relationship or family environment, lack of employment opportunities, general tolerance of sexual assault within the community, weak community sanctions against perpetrators of sexual violence, societal norms that support sexual violence, male superiority and sexual entitlement, and weak laws and policies related to gender equity.
Source: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Sexual Violence Fact Sheet (accessed 1/15/2013) http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/sexualviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html
Related Risk Factors Indicators:
Health Status OutcomesMany long-lasting physical symptoms and illnesses have been associated with sexual victimization including chronic pelvic pain, premenstrual syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders, and a variety of chronic pain disorders, including headache, back pain, and facial pain. Immediate reactions to rape include shock, disbelief, denial, fear, confusion, anxiety, withdrawal, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, victims often experience anxiety, guilt, nervousness, phobias, substance abuse, sleep disturbances, depression, alienation, and sexual dysfunction. Women with a history of sexual assault are more likely to attempt or commit suicide than other women.
Source: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Sexual Violence Fact Sheet (accessed 1/15/2013) http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/sexualviolence/consequences.html
Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:
Graphical Data Views
Data NotesForcible rape, as defined in the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program, is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults and attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded. The rape rate includes only those that have been reported to law enforcement and is an underestimate of the actual rape rate. Some law enforcement agencies do not submit a full 12 months of data and some agencies do not submit any data at all.
Data SourcesBureau of Criminal Identification, Utah Department of Public Safety. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2011.
Data Notes*Use caution in interpreting, the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability.
**The estimate has been suppressed because 1) the relative standard error is greater than 50% or when the relative standard error can't be determined, 2) the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication, 3) it could be used to calculate the number in a cell that has been suppressed, or 4) data was not available.
For more information, please go to http://health.utah.gov/opha/IBIShelp/DataSuppression.pdf.
Forcible rape, as defined in the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program, is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults and attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded. The rape rate includes only those that have been reported to law enforcement and is an underestimate of the actual rape rate. Some law enforcement agencies do not submit a full 12 months of data and some agencies do not submit any data at all.
Data SourcesBureau of Criminal Identification, Utah Department of Public Safety. Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2011.
Females Who Reported They Have Ever Been Physically Forced to Have Sexual Intercourse When They Did Not Want To, Grades 9-12, Utah and U.S., 2003-2011
Data SourcesYouth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
References and Community ResourcesSexual violence resources and information can be found on the following websites:
Violence and Injury Prevention Program, Utah Department of Health
Utah Coalition Against Sexual Assault
National Sexual Violence Resource Center
Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network
More Resources and LinksEvidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:
Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:
Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.
For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.
Page Content Updated On 11/18/2013, Published on 12/27/2013