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Complete Health Indicator Report of Rape

Definition

The rape rate is reported as the number of rapes among Utah females per 100,000 population.

Numerator

Number of reported rapes among females in Utah.

Denominator

Total female population of Utah.

Data Interpretation Issues

Statistics vary because of differences in how rape is defined and how data is collected. A limitation to Uniform Crime Reporting data is that historically the definition used for rape was very narrow. Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program Legacy Definition: Forcible rape is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults and attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded. In 2013, the definition was revised to: Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. To continue trends, the legacy definition was used, especially since there are only two years of data for the revised definition at this time. The rape rate includes only those that have been reported to law enforcement and is an underestimate of the actual rape rate. Some law enforcement agencies do not submit a full 12 months of data and some agencies do not submit any data at all. The numerator of the rate is by county of occurrence, not county of residence.

Why Is This Important?

Sexual violence in Utah is a serious public health problem affecting thousands of residents each year. Studies in Utah indicate that one in eight women and one in 50 men will experience rape in their lifetimes and nearly one in three women will experience some form of sexual violence during their lives.^1^ Rape is the only violent crime in Utah that is higher than the national average. In a state where other violent crimes, such as homicide, robbery, or aggravated assault, is historically half to three times lower than the national average, this is of concern.^2^ Rape affects the quality of life and may have lasting consequences for victims. The 2010 Utah Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System showed that rape victims had a significantly higher prevalence in reporting that they were not satisfied with life (14.7% vs. 4.8%), didn't receive the social and emotional support they need (33.8% vs. 13.2%), had fair or poor health (25.9% vs. 10.7%), and were limited in activities because of physical, mental, or emotional problems (39.2% vs. 19.7%). In the 2013 survey, 11.0% of respondents indicated that they experienced a form of sexual abuse as a child. This was significantly higher for females (15.2%) compared to males (6.6%).^3^ The impact of sexual violence on the community is costly. At $127 billion per year, rape has the highest annual victim costs of any crime.^4^[[br]] [[br]] ---- 1) Utah Health Status Update, Sexual Violence, April 2008, (accessed 11/20/2015) [http://health.utah.gov/opha/publications/hsu/08Apr_SexualViolence.pdf][[br]] 2) Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice, ''2007 Rape in Utah Survey'', (accessed 11/20/2015) [http://nomoresecrets.utah.gov/Documents/RapeinUtah2007.pdf][[br]] 3) Utah Health Status Update, Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health, July 2015, (accessed 11/20/2015) [http://health.utah.gov/opha/publications/hsu/1507_ACE.pdf][[br]] 4) U.S. Department of Justice, ''Victim Costs and Consequences: A New Look'', 1996.

Healthy People Objective IVP-40:

(Developmental) Reduce sexual violence
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category

Other Objectives

Subobjectives for Healthy People Objective IVP-40 include: ====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.1:==== (Developmental) Reduce rape or attempted rape[[br]] '''State Target:''' 11.2 percent ====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.2:==== (Developmental) Reduce abusive sexual contact other than rape or attempted rape ====Healthy People 2020 IVP-40.3:==== (Developmental) Reduce non-contact sexual abuse

How Are We Doing?

From 2002 to 2014, Utah Uniform Crime Reports show that Duchesne, Grand, Salt Lake, Tooele, Carbon, and Uintah counties had significantly higher reported rape rates than the state rate of 69.3 per 100,000 female population. Unfortunately the majority of rapes (88.2%) are not reported to law enforcement according to the 2007 Rape in Utah Survey. This clearly indicates that sexual violence rates are underestimated. Because we know that rape is underreported, it is difficult to gauge the magnitude of the problem using federal and state crime reports. The 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that 8.9% of Utah female high school students have been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to, compared to 5.9% of male high school students.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

According to Uniform Crime Reports, the rape rate in Utah has been consistently higher than the U.S. rate. In 2014, Utah's reported rape rate was significantly higher than the U.S. rate (67.7 and 51.9 per 100,000 females).

What Is Being Done?

The Utah Department of Health Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) and the Utah Coalition Against Sexual Assault (UCASA) collaborated in 1999 to enlist individuals, organizations, and agencies to participate in a statewide multi-disciplinary council addressing sexual violence. In 2003, the Utah Sexual Violence Council (USVC) was formed. The USVC is a multi-disciplinary, statewide advisory council that promotes a climate where sexual violence is addressed as a priority issue that impacts all Utah communities. Its vision is to change social norms and improve Utah's understanding of the overwhelming significance of this public health, social service, and criminal justice problem. Since 2000, the VIPP has received Rape Prevention and Education Grants from the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The intent of the grant is to ensure that UCASA, as well as rape recovery centers and other community based organizations, engage in collaborative efforts with the VIPP to provide rape primary prevention and education services.

Available Services

Statewide 24-hour Rape and Sexual Assault Crisis and Information Line 1-888-421-1100 __Box Elder, Cache, Rich Counties__[[br]] CAPSA 435-753-2500[[br]] New Hope Crisis Center 435-726-5600 __Davis, Weber, Morgan Counties__[[br]] Safe Harbor 801-444-3191 and 801-444-9161 (Crisis)[[br]] YCC, Ogden 801-394-9456 and 801-392-7273 (Crisis) __Salt Lake, Summit, Tooele Counties__[[br]] Rape Recovery Center 801-467-7282[[br]] Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Victim Advocacy 435-241-0337[[br]] Peace House 435-647-9161 __Juab, Millard, Utah, Wasatch Counties__[[br]] Center for Women and Children in Crisis 801-374-9351 __Iron, Beaver, Washington Counties__[[br]] Cedar City-Canyon Creek Women's Crisis Center 435-867-9411 and 435-865-7443 (Crisis)[[br]] Dove Center 435-628-0458 __Sevier, Wayne, Piute, Garfield, Kane Counties__[[br]] New Horizons Crisis Center 435-896-9294 and 800-343-6302 (Crisis) __Carbon, San Juan, Emery, Grand Counties__[[br]] Seekhaven 435-259-2229 __Uintah, Daggett, Duchesne Counties__[[br]] Vernal Victim Advocates 435-789-5835

Health Program Information

The Violence and Injury Prevention Program (VIPP) is a trusted and comprehensive resource for data related to violence and injury. Through education, this information helps promote partnerships and programs to prevent injuries and improve public health. VIPP goals are to a) focus prevention efforts on reducing intentional and unintentional injury, b) conduct education aimed at increasing awareness and changing behaviors that contribute to the occurrence of injury, c) strengthen local health department capacity to conduct local injury prevention programs, d) promote legislation, policy changes, and enforcement that will reduce injury hazards and increase safe behaviors, e) collaborate with private and public partners, and f) improve the Utah Department of Health capacity to collect mortality and morbidity data from multiple sources and conduct injury epidemiology for use in prevention planning, implementation, and evaluation.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

Nationally, nearly 1 in 5 women and 1 in 71 men reported experiencing rape at some time in their lives. Among high school students, 12.5% of American Indian/Alaska Natives, 10.5% of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander students, 8.6% of Black students, 8.2% of Hispanic students, 7.4% of White students, and 13.5% of multiple-race students reported that they were forced to have sexual intercourse at some time in their lives. Among adult women surveyed in 2010, 26.9% of American Indian/Alaska Natives, 22% of non-Hispanic Blacks, 18.8% of non-Hispanic Whites, 14.6% of Hispanics, and 35.5% of women of multiple races experienced an attempted or a completed rape at some time in their lives.[[br]] [[br]] ---- Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, ''Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance'' (accessed 11/20/2015) [http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/SV-DataSheet-a.pdf]

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

According to the 2007 Rape in Utah Survey, only 12.7% of sexual assaults resulted in a visit to a doctor or medical center for an examination after the incident. Victims say they do not seek medical attention because they were not injured, they were too young to ask for help, they were afraid someone would find out what happened, and they were not thinking clearly. The main reasons for seeking medical care after a sexual assault were to be checked for a sexually transmitted infection, pregnancy, or to receive emergency contraception.[[br]] [[br]] ---- Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice, ''2007 Rape in Utah Survey'' (accessed 11/20/2015), [http://www.nomoresecrets.utah.gov/Documents/RapeinUtah2007.pdf]

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

Research has identified the following risk factors for sexual violence perpetration: alcohol and drug use, impulsive and antisocial tendencies, hostility towards women, history of sexual abuse as a child, witnessing family violence as a child, associating with sexually aggressive and delinquent peers, strongly patriarchal relationship or family environment, lack of employment opportunities, general tolerance of sexual assault within the community, weak community sanctions against perpetrators of sexual violence, societal norms that support sexual violence, male superiority and sexual entitlement, and weak laws and policies related to gender equity.[[br]] [[br]] ---- Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Sexual Violence Fact Sheet (accessed 11/20/2015) [http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/sexualviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html]

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

Many long-lasting physical symptoms and illnesses have been associated with sexual victimization including chronic pelvic pain, premenstrual syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders, and a variety of chronic pain disorders, including headache, back pain, and facial pain. Immediate reactions to rape include shock, disbelief, denial, fear, confusion, anxiety, withdrawal, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, victims often experience anxiety, guilt, nervousness, phobias, substance abuse, sleep disturbances, depression, alienation, and sexual dysfunction. Women with a history of sexual assault are more likely to attempt or commit suicide than other women.[[br]] [[br]] ---- Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Sexual Violence Fact Sheet (accessed 11/20/2015) [http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/sexualviolence/consequences.html]

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Female Forcible Rape, Utah and U.S., 2002-2014

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Utah vs. U.S.YearRate per 100,000 FemalesLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 36
Utah200278.873.884.19131,158,853
Utah200371.766.976.78431,175,867
Utah200475.670.880.79051,196,749
Utah200575.971.181.09301,224,741
Utah200669.064.573.78681,257,991
Utah200771.466.976.29231,292,672
Utah200867.062.771.58881,325,631
Utah200968.263.972.89251,355,509
Utah201066.362.170.79151,380,609
Utah201162.258.266.58721,401,031
Utah201268.063.872.59661,419,882
Utah201363.559.567.89171,443,505
Utah201467.763.572.09901,463,152
U.S.200265.164.665.595,235146,394,634
U.S.200363.663.264.093,883147,679,036
U.S.200463.863.464.295,089148,977,286
U.S.200562.862.463.294,347150,319,521
U.S.200662.361.962.794,472151,732,647
U.S.200760.259.860.692,160153,166,353
U.S.200858.758.359.190,750154,604,015
U.S.200957.256.857.689,241155,964,075
U.S.201054.554.254.985,593156,964,212
U.S.201152.752.353.183,425158,301,098
U.S.201252.952.653.384,376159,477,797
U.S.201351.150.751.482,109160,756,163
U.S.201451.951.652.384,041161,920,569

Data Notes

Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program Legacy Definition: Forcible rape is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults and attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded. In 2013, the definition was revised to: Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. To continue trends, the legacy definition was used, especially since there is only two years of data for the revised definition at this time. The rape rate includes only those that have been reported to law enforcement and is an underestimate of the actual rape rate. Some law enforcement agencies do not submit a full 12 months of data and some agencies do not submit any data at all.

Data Sources

  • Bureau of Criminal Identification, Utah Department of Public Safety
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2014


Female Forcible Rape by County, Utah, 2002-2014

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program Legacy Definition: Forcible rape is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults and attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded. In 2013, the definition was revised to: Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. To continue trends, the legacy definition was used, especially since there is only two years of data for the revised definition at this time. The rape rate includes only those that have been reported to law enforcement and is an underestimate of the actual rape rate. Some law enforcement agencies do not submit a full 12 months of data and some agencies do not submit any data at all.
CountyRate per 100,000 FemalesLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 30
Beaver12.54.029.1*540,131
Box Elder63.454.872.9195307,793
Cache50.745.656.2356702,258
Carbon88.773.5106.0120135,332
Daggett****5,834
Davis58.755.362.31,1071,885,827
Duchesne103.285.2123.9115111,392
Emery20.511.234.31468,438
Garfield****30,772
Grand99.375.4128.45858,382
Iron77.367.488.3217280,694
Juab39.125.058.12461,433
Kane42.925.866.91944,340
Millard52.637.871.44177,873
Morgan15.77.229.7*957,473
Piute****9,302
Rich****13,743
Salt Lake91.489.193.85,9106,466,079
San Juan38.727.153.63692,911
Sanpete28.020.537.346164,566
Sevier70.056.486.091129,933
Summit52.043.062.4116223,081
Tooele90.981.2101.4319351,074
Uintah83.471.297.1166199,058
Utah43.941.746.31,3743,126,698
Wasatch24.817.334.535141,115
Washington49.344.754.2421853,863
Wayne****17,122
Weber70.866.575.31,0191,439,675
State69.368.170.611,85517,096,192

Data Notes

*Use caution in interpreting, the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. **The estimate has been suppressed because the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication.

Data Sources

  • Bureau of Criminal Identification, Utah Department of Public Safety
  • Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2014


Females Who Reported They Have Ever Been Physically Forced to Have Sexual Intercourse When They Did Not Want To, Grades 9-12, Utah and U.S., 2003-2013

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Utah vs. U.S.YearPercentageLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 12
Utah20038.5%5.9%12.1%
Utah20057.1%5.2%9.6%
Utah200711.9%7.5%18.5%
Utah20097.2%5.6%9.1%
Utah20117.9%6.5%9.6%
Utah20137.4%5.8%9.3%
U.S.20039.0%7.5%10.7%
U.S.20057.5%6.7%8.3%
U.S.20077.8%7.0%8.8%
U.S.20097.4%6.7%8.3%
U.S.20118.0%7.3%8.8%
U.S.20137.3%6.6%8.1%

Data Source

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

References and Community Resources

Sexual violence resources and information can be found on the following websites: Violence and Injury Prevention Program, Utah Department of Health[[br]] [http://www.health.utah.gov/vipp/topics/rape-sexual-assault/] Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice[[br]] 2014 No More Secrets Report[[br]] [http://nomoresecrets.utah.gov/Annual%20Reports/nms_annualreport_2014.pdf] Utah Coalition Against Sexual Assault[[br]] [http://www.ucasa.org] National Sexual Violence Resource Center[[br]] [http://www.nsvrc.org] Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network[[br]] [http://www.rainn.org]

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 11/20/2015, Published on 12/10/2015
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 26 June 2016 16:44:06 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Thu, 10 Dec 2015 00:18:50 MST