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Complete Health Indicator Report of Low Birth Weight

Definition

The number of live births under 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces) divided by the total number of live births over the same time period.

Numerator

Number of live born infants weighing under 2,500 grams.

Denominator

Total number of live births.

Why Is This Important?

As birth weight decreases, the risk for death increases. Low birth weight (LBW) infants who survive often require intensive care at birth, may develop chronic illnesses and later may require special education services. Health care costs and length of hospital stay are higher for LBW infants. For a LBW infant without complications, average hospital stays are three times longer than a normal weight infant, and for a LBW infant with complications, average hospital stays are over seven times longer than a normal weight infant. Utah inpatient hospital discharge data (2014) indicate that average hospital charges for a LBW infant was $73,796 (DRG 386, 387, 388) compared to $2,922 for a normal weight infant (DRG 391). Utah inpatient hospital discharge data (2014) indicate that average length of stay for a LBW infant was 16.8 days (DRG 386, 387, 388) compared to 1.9 days for a normal weight infant (DRG 391).

Healthy People Objective MICH-8.1:

Reduce low birth weight (LBW)
U.S. Target: 7.8 percent
State Target: 6.7 percent

How Are We Doing?

Utah's low birth weight percentage has remained essentially unchanged over the last decade from 6.9% in 2006 to 7.0% in 2015. In addition, this is below the Healthy People 2020 Objective target (7.8%).

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Nationally, the percentage of low birth weight births is essentially unchanged in the last decade from 8.3% in 2006 to 8.1% in 2015 (preliminary data). Utah's low birth weight rate is lower than the national rate.

What Is Being Done?

In an effort to reduce the low birth weight rate, emphasis has been placed on promoting preconception health to encourage women to be at optimal health at the time of conception as chronic health conditions, physical, emotional, and behavioral health issues can have a strong impact on the developing fetus. Chronic maternal disease such as hypertension and diabetes should be diagnosed and optimally managed prior to conception. In addition, work is ongoing to promote optimal weight in women of reproductive age prior to pregnancy as both maternal underweight and obesity are associated with low birth weight infants. Efforts are also underway to promote optimal pregnancy spacing as short interpregnancy intervals (< 18 months) are associated with low birth weight infants. Programs to reduce tobacco use during pregnancy have been developed and are being implemented in many local health departments. The Utah Department of Health has implemented the "Power Your Life" campaign to reach women of reproductive age about the importance of being healthy prior to pregnancy to improve outcomes. The centerpiece of the campaign is the Power Your Life website at [http://www.poweryourlife.org]. Women are also encouraged to seek early and continuous care throughout their pregnancies and to achieve an adequate weight gain during pregnancy. All women should receive a thorough formal risk assessment at their initial prenatal visit, with updates throughout pregnancy to identify risk factors for low birth weight and develop appropriate interventions, if needed. Additionally, all women should be educated regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and the importance of fetal kick counts to facilitate early recognition of problems to permit earlier intervention, thereby improving pregnancy outcomes. Standards for assisted reproductive technology should be adhered to in order to reduce the frequency of higher order multiple pregnancies and to assure optimal outcomes. Women should be at optimal health and be low risk before undergoing infertility treatment. Pregnant women also need appropriate referrals to services such as WIC, and nutritional and psychosocial counseling for at risk women.

Available Services

'''Power Your Life:''' [http://www.poweryourlife.org][[br]] Public education about how to be at optimal health prior to pregnancy.[[br]] [[br]] Social media for Power Your Life include:[[br]] *Facebook: [http://www.facebook.com/poweryourlifeutah][[br]] *Twitter: @Poweryourlife2[[br]] *Pinterest: [http://www.pinterest.com/poweryourlifeut][[br]] [[br]] '''Utah Tobacco Quit Line:''' 1-800-784-8669[[br]] En espanol: Llame 1-877-629-1585[[br]] Free professional coaching to guide you through the quitting process. '''Baby Your Baby:''' 1-800-826-9662[[br]] [http://www.babyyourbaby.org][[br]] A resource to answer pregnancy related questions and and locate services for the public. '''MotherToBaby:'''[[br]] Phone - 1-800-822-2229[[br]] Text - 1-855-999-3525[[br]] Email - expertinfo@mothertobaby.org[[br]] A service to answer questions about what's safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[[br]] [[br]] Social media for MotherToBaby include:[[br]] *Facebook: [http://www.facebook.com/MotherToBaby][[br]] *Twitter: @MotherToBaby[[br]] *Pinterest: [http://www.pinterest.com/MotherToBaby][[br]] [[br]] '''Baby Watch Early Intervention Hotline:'''[[br]] 1-801-273-2998 (Main)[[br]] 1-800-961-4226 (Toll free)[[br]] Utah's network of services for children, birth to three years of age, with developmental delay or disabilities. '''University of Utah Health Care Parent-to-Parent Support Group:''' 1-801-581-2098[[br]] Support Program for families of high risk/critically ill newborns.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

2013-2015 data show the following population subgroups at higher risk of having a low birth weight infant: *Maternal age (mothers younger than 19 and older than 35) *Race and ethnicity (Utahns who are Hispanic, Black or African American, or Asian have higher rates of low birth weight than Utah's general population) *Low educational attainment (high school diploma or less) *Being unmarried

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

2013-2015 data show the following health care system factors contribute to a higher risk of having a low birth weight infant:[[br]] *Health insurance coverage

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

2013-2015 data show the following risk factors contribute to having a low birth weight infant: *Preterm births *Maternal chronic disease, such as hypertension *Multiple gestation (e.g. twins) *A pre-pregnancy BMI of underweight or obese *Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy *Tobacco or alcohol use during pregnancy *Lack of or inadequate prenatal care *Intervals less than 3 months between pregnancies *Previous pregnancy resulting in a low birth weight infant

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

The following outcomes are related to low birth weight infants: *Health problems (including abnormal growth and infant death) *Costs associated with low birth weight births, premature births, and maternal and infant mortality and morbidity

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Low Birth Weight by County, Utah, 2013-2015, and U.S., 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

CountyPercentage of Live Born InfantsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 31
Beaver7.6%5.1%11.3%
Box Elder6.5%5.6%7.6%
Cache6.6%6.0%7.2%
Carbon9.4%7.6%11.6%
Daggett11.8%4.1%28.7%*
Davis6.3%6.0%6.7%
Duchesne6.3%5.1%7.8%
Emery7.0%4.9%10.0%
Garfield5.4%2.7%10.4%*
Grand8.5%6.0%11.8%
Iron8.4%7.4%9.6%
Juab6.8%4.9%9.3%
Kane9.2%6.0%13.8%
Millard6.5%4.7%8.9%
Morgan6.6%4.7%9.3%
Piute9.3%3.2%23.2%*
Rich0.0%**
Salt Lake7.5%7.3%7.8%
San Juan6.5%4.9%8.6%
Sanpete7.6%6.1%9.3%
Sevier9.6%7.8%11.7%
Summit9.0%7.5%10.7%
Tooele7.0%6.1%8.0%
Uintah7.6%6.6%8.9%
Utah6.3%6.0%6.5%
Wasatch7.6%6.2%9.2%
Washington6.7%6.1%7.3%
Wayne11.7%6.5%19.9%
Weber7.5%7.0%8.0%
State7.0%6.9%7.1%
U.S.8.1%preliminary

Data Notes

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces).   [[br]] [[br]] Note: County represents county of mother's residence. [[br]] [[br]] *Use caution when interpreting rates for Daggett, Garfield, and Piute counties. The estimates have a coefficient of variation >30% and are therefore deemed unreliable by Utah Department of Health standards. [[br]] [[br]] **The estimate for Rich county has been suppressed because 1) the relative standard error is greater than 50% or the relative standard error can't be determined, or 2) the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication. [[br]] [[br]] 2015 U.S. rate is preliminary.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Low Birth Weight by Local Health District, Utah, 2013-2015, and U.S., 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Local Health DistrictPercentage of Live Born InfantsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 15
Bear River6.5%6.0%7.0%
Central8.0%7.1%8.9%
Davis County6.3%6.0%6.7%
Salt Lake County7.5%7.3%7.8%
San Juan6.5%4.9%8.6%
Southeast8.6%7.3%10.1%
Southwest7.2%6.7%7.7%
Summit9.0%7.5%10.7%
Tooele7.0%6.1%8.0%
TriCounty7.2%6.4%8.1%
Utah County6.3%6.0%6.5%
Wasatch7.6%6.2%9.2%
Weber-Morgan7.4%7.0%7.9%
State of Utah7.0%6.9%7.1%
U.S.8.1%preliminary

Data Notes

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces).   [[br]] [[br]] Note: Local health district represents district of mother's residence. [[br]] [[br]] Prior to 2015 San Juan County was part of the Southeast Local Health District. In 2015 the San Juan County Local Health District was formed. Data reported are for all years using the current boundaries.[[br]] [[br]] 2015 U.S. rate is preliminary.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Low Birth Weight by Utah Small Area, 2013-2015, and U.S., 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Utah Small AreasPercentage of Live Born InfantsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 65
Brigham City7.0%5.7%8.6%
Box Elder Co (Other)6.0%4.9%7.5%
Logan6.8%6.1%7.5%
Cache Co (Oth)/Rich Co (All)6.0%5.0%7.0%
Ben Lomond7.6%6.7%8.7%
Morgan Co (All)/Weber Co (E)6.6%5.6%7.9%
Ogden (Downtown)8.3%7.1%9.6%
South Ogden7.4%6.3%8.8%
Roy/Hooper6.8%5.8%7.9%
Riverdale8.0%6.6%9.6%
Clearfield/Hill AFB7.0%6.2%7.8%
Layton6.7%6.0%7.5%
Syracuse/Kaysville5.0%4.3%5.9%
Farmington/Centerville5.7%4.7%6.9%
Woods Cross/North Salt Lake6.9%5.9%8.1%
Bountiful6.0%5.1%7.1%
SLC (Rose Park)7.8%6.6%9.1%
SLC (Avenues)7.3%5.5%9.5%
SLC (Foothill/U of U)6.6%5.2%8.3%
Magna8.3%7.0%9.9%
SLC (Glendale)8.4%7.1%9.9%
West Valley (West)8.6%7.7%9.5%
West Valley (East) V27.6%6.7%8.6%
SLC (Downtown)8.6%7.4%10.0%
South Salt Lake7.6%6.4%9.2%
Millcreek7.4%6.5%8.5%
Holladay6.8%5.7%8.0%
Cottonwood7.4%6.2%8.9%
Kearns V28.9%7.8%10.2%
Taylorsville (E)/Murray (W)7.3%6.2%8.5%
Taylorsville (West)7.2%6.0%8.5%
Murray7.4%6.2%8.7%
Midvale7.6%6.5%8.8%
West Jordan (NE) V28.3%7.0%9.8%
West Jordan (SE)8.0%6.8%9.3%
West Jordan (W)/Copperton7.2%6.2%8.3%
South Jordan6.6%5.8%7.6%
Sandy (Center)7.8%6.8%8.9%
Sandy (NE)5.7%4.3%7.6%
Sandy (SE)8.3%6.6%10.3%
Riverton/Draper6.5%5.9%7.1%
Tooele Co7.0%6.1%8.0%
Lehi/Cedar Valley6.4%5.9%6.9%
American Fork/Alpine6.6%5.7%7.7%
Pleasant Grove/Lindon5.8%5.0%6.6%
Orem (North)7.3%6.3%8.3%
Orem (West)6.6%5.7%7.7%
Orem (East)6.6%5.3%8.2%
Provo (North)/BYU5.0%4.2%6.0%
Provo (South)6.0%5.4%6.7%
Springville/Spanish Fork6.1%5.5%6.8%
Utah Co (South)6.7%5.7%7.9%
Summit Co9.0%7.5%10.7%
Wasatch Co7.6%6.2%9.2%
TriCounty LHD7.2%6.4%8.1%
Juab/Millard/Sanpete Co7.1%6.1%8.3%
Sevier/Piute/Wayne Co9.8%8.1%11.7%
Carbon/Emery Co8.6%7.2%10.3%
Grand/San Juan Co7.2%5.8%8.9%
St George7.0%6.2%7.8%
Washington Co (Other)6.3%5.4%7.2%
Cedar City8.3%7.2%9.5%
Southwest LHD (Other)8.2%6.5%10.2%
State7.0%6.9%7.1%
U.S.8.1%preliminary

Data Notes

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces).   [[br]] [[br]]Note: Utah Small Area represents area of mother's residence. [[br]] [[br]]A description of the Utah Small Areas may be found on IBIS at the following URL: [http://ibis.health.utah.gov/resource/Help.html]. [[br]] [[br]]2015 U.S. rate is preliminary.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Low Birth Weight by Year, Utah and U.S., 2001-2015

::chart - missing::

Utah vs. U.S.YearPercentage of Live Born Infants
Record Count: 30
Utah20016.4%
Utah20026.5%
Utah20036.6%
Utah20046.6%
Utah20056.8%
Utah20066.9%
Utah20076.7%
Utah20086.8%
Utah20097.0%
Utah20107.0%
Utah20116.9%
Utah20126.9%
Utah20137.0%
Utah20147.0%
Utah20157.0%
U.S.20017.7%
U.S.20027.8%
U.S.20037.9%
U.S.20048.1%
U.S.20058.2%
U.S.20068.3%
U.S.20078.2%
U.S.20088.2%
U.S.20098.2%
U.S.20108.2%
U.S.20118.1%
U.S.20128.0%
U.S.20138.0%
U.S.20148.0%
U.S.20158.1%

Data Notes

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces).   [[br]] [[br]] 2015 U.S. rate is preliminary.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Low Birth Weight by Race, Utah, 2013-2015, and U.S., 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

RacePercentage of Live Born InfantsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 7
American Indian/Native Alaskan7.3%6.1%8.6%
Asian9.6%8.7%10.7%
Black10.0%8.7%11.4%
Pacific Islander7.7%6.5%9.0%
White6.9%6.7%7.0%
All Races7.0%6.9%7.1%
U.S.8.1%

Data Notes

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces).   [[br]] [[br]] 2015 U.S. rate is preliminary.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Low Birth Weight by Ethnicity, Utah, 2013-2015, and U.S., 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Hispanic EthnicityPercentage of Live Born InfantsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 5
Hispanic7.8%7.4%8.1%
Non-Hispanic6.8%6.7%6.9%
Unknown Ethnicity9.4%8.5%10.2%
All Utahns7.0%6.9%7.1%
U.S.8.1%

Data Notes

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces).   [[br]] [[br]] 2015 U.S. rate is preliminary.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

References and Community Resources

Child Health fact sheet on low birth weight by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau[[br]] [http://mchb.hrsa.gov/chusa13/perinatal-health-status-indicators/p/low-birth-weight.html] CDC's National Public Health Tracking Network fact sheet on low birth weight[[br]] [http://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showRbLBWGrowthRetardationEnv.action] March of Dimes website's professional information on low birth weight[[br]] [http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/low-birthweight.aspx]

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 11/07/2016, Published on 12/02/2016
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Wed, 17 January 2018 20:57:33 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Fri, 26 May 2017 10:19:46 MDT