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Complete Health Indicator Report of Infant Mortality

Definition

Number of infants who died before their first birthday (under 365 days), after being born alive, per 1,000 live births.

Numerator

Number of infants who died prior to their first birthday.

Denominator

Number of live births.

Why Is This Important?

The infant death rate is an important measure of a nation's health and a worldwide indicator of health status and social well-being. It is a critical indicator of the health of a population. The top four causes of infant mortality in Utah include conditions in the perinatal period (includes disorders related to short gestation or preterm birth and can reflect the overall state of maternal health, as well as the quality and accessibility of primary health care for pregnant women), birth defects, medical conditions of the infants, and sudden unexpected infant death (formerly called Sudden Infant Death, now commonly referred to as Sudden Unexpected Infant Death, or SUID; many of these are related to sleep environments which are unsafe for infants). These four causes historically account for the greatest number of infant deaths in Utah; their proportions fluctuate somewhat from year to year.

Healthy People Objective MICH-1.3:

Reduce the rate of all infant deaths (within 1 year)
U.S. Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births
State Target: 4.6 infant deaths per 1,000 live births

Other Objectives

Utah's 42 Community Health Indicators Utah Department of Health (UDOH), Division of Family Health and Preparedness: Decrease the disparity between the Black and Native American infant mortality rates and the White infant mortality rate.

How Are We Doing?

The infant mortality rate has been declining throughout the past 20 years both locally and nationally. Despite this decline, the problem of infant mortality remains substantial. During 2015, 257 Utah infants died during their first year of life, each death representing a tragedy for parents, siblings and other family members.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Historically, Utah's infant mortality rate has been better than the nation's. The U.S. rate in 2014 was 5.82 per 1,000 live births, which is a historic low.[[br]] ==U.S. vs. Other Countries== According to a 2014 National Vital Statistics Report (''International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors: United States and Europe, 2010''; vol 63, no. 5), the U.S. ranked last below 21 European countries (including Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) in infant mortality. The U.S. rate was 6.1 in this ranking which was data year 2010. The U.S. also ranks below the Czech Republic, Korea, and Israel in this list.

What Is Being Done?

Improvements in early obstetric intervention and perinatal and postneonatal care have been linked to this decline in infant mortality. However, there still remain significant disparities among various racial/ethnic groups. The UDOH Maternal and Infant Health Program is currently 1) reviewing data obtained from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the Perinatal Mortality Review Program (PMRP) to identify modifiable risk factors for infant mortality and develop appropriate interventions; 2) making health information available on-line for researchers, students, health care professionals and the general public to increase awareness of factors associated with infant death (i.e. the Indicator Based Information System [IBIS] and the Maternal and Infant Health Program websites); 3) educating prenatal health care providers to help pregnant clients cease smoking to reduce the postneonatal mortality rate and reduce low birth weight births which contribute to neonatal mortality; 4) promoting preconception and interconception health care for all women of childbearing age, with special emphasis on attaining and maintaining healthy weight; 5) working with community partners and health professionals to disseminate information on 17P, a newer drug to help prevent recurrent preterm birth; and 6) collaborating with the Office of Health Disparities Reduction on targeted interventions toward decreasing infant mortality in disparate populations. In addition, the Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (CoIIN) to Reduce Infant Mortality was launched nationwide in 2014. The CoIIN is a multi-year national movement engaging federal, state, and local leaders; public and private agencies; professionals; and communities to employ quality improvement, innovation, and collaborative learning to reduce infant mortality and improve birth outcomes. The CoIIN has identified six strategy areas that it will focus on: SIDS/SUID/safe sleep, smoking cessation, preconception/interconception care, social determinants of health, prevention of preterm and early term births, and risk-appropriate perinatal care (perinatal regionalization). Utah will be focusing on preconception/interconception care and prevention of preterm and early term births.

Evidence-based Practices

Utah Department of Health has participated in establishing a statewide perinatal quality collaborative called Utah Women and Newborn Quality Collaborative (UWNQC). This workgroup of clinicians and public health professionals engages in development and measurement of health care quality indicators and quality improvement projects in the areas of maternal and neonatal health issues. There are a number of other states engaged in such collaboratives, including Iowa, Maryland, Ohio, California, and Tennessee. UWNQC is currently working on decreasing preterm birth, tracking neonatal abstinence syndrome, and issues impacting out-of-hospital birth in Utah.

Available Services

'''Utah Women and Newborn Quality Collaborative:''' [http://uwnqc.org][[br]] Provider and patient education about improving maternal and neonatal outcomes through collaborative efforts centered on quality improvement methodology and data sharing. '''Power Your Life website:''' [http://www.poweryourlife.org][[br]] Public education about how to be at optimal health prior to pregnancy.[[br]] [[br]] Social media for Power Your Life include:[[br]] *Facebook: [http://www.facebook.com/poweryourlifeutah][[br]] *Twitter: @Poweryourlife2[[br]] *Pinterest: [http://www.pinterest.com/poweryourlifeut][[br]] [[br]] '''Utah Tobacco Quit Line:''' 1-888-567-8788 '''Baby Your Baby Hotline:''' 1-800-826-9662[[br]] A resource to answer pregnancy related questions and and locate services for the public. '''MotherToBaby:'''[[br]] Phone - 1-800-822-2229[[br]] Text - 1-855-999-3525[[br]] Email - expertinfo@mothertobaby.org[[br]] [[br]] A service to answer questions about what's safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[[br]] [[br]] Social media for MotherToBaby include:[[br]] *Facebook: [http://www.facebook.com/MotherToBaby][[br]] *Twitter: @MotherToBaby[[br]] *Pinterest: [http://www.pinterest.com/MotherToBaby][[br]] [[br]] '''Baby Watch Early Intervention Hotline:''' 1-800-961-4226[[br]] Utah's network of services for children, birth to three years of age, with developmental delay or disabilities. '''March of Dimes, Utah Chapter:''' [http://www.marchofdimes.org/utah][[br]] The mission of the March of Dimes is to improve the health of babies by preventing birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality.[[br]] *Facebook: [https://www.facebook.com/marchofdimes][[br]] *Twitter: @MarchofDimes[[br]] *YouTube: [https://www.youtube.com/marchofdimes][[br]] [[br]] '''University of Utah Health Care Parent-to-Parent Support Group:''' 1-801-581-2098[[br]] Support Program for families of high risk/critically ill newborns.

Health Program Information

Infant mortality may be reduced by breastfeeding. The Utah Collaboration for Advancing the "Ten Steps" (UCATS) Stepping Up Program was developed by the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) and partners to recognize Utah hospitals that have taken steps to promote, protect, educate, and encourage breastfeeding in their facilities. Using a learning collaborative model, hospitals can implement 2, 4, 6, 8, or all 10 of the evidence-based steps to successful breastfeeding identified by the World Health Organization and UNICEF ([http://www.babyfriendlyusa.org/about-us/baby-friendly-hospital-initiative/the-ten-steps]). A tool kit was adapted and developed outlining best practices, resources, action plans, and barriers to implementing each of the steps. Hospitals that successfully implement each two step interval (up to 10 steps) will be certified by UDOH and recognized through media and public celebrations.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

2013-2015 data show the following population subgroups at higher risk of infant mortality: *Mother's race (Utahns who are Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander) *Maternal age (mothers younger than 19, older than 40) *Mother's low educational attainment (high school diploma or less) *Mother being unmarried

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

2013-2015 data show the following health care system factors contribute to a higher risk of infant mortality: *Access to prenatal care *No health insurance *Preterm birth

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Risk Factors

2013-2015 data show the following risk factors contribute to infant mortality: * Maternal inadequate weight gain during pregnancy * Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (obese prior to pregnancy) * Maternal tobacco use * Less than 6 months between pregnancies * Infant birth weight (less than 2,500 g) * Preterm infant * Multiple gestation (e.g. twins)

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

The following outcomes are related to infant mortality: *Costs associated with low birth weight births *Premature births *Maternal and infant mortality and morbidity

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Infant Mortality: Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age, Utah and U.S., 1980-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Utah vs. U.S.YearDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 71
Utah198010.59.511.4
Utah19819.88.810.8
Utah198211.110.012.1
Utah19838.87.89.7
Utah19849.28.210.2
Utah19859.88.710.7
Utah19868.67.69.5
Utah19878.87.99.9
Utah19887.97.18.9
Utah19898.07.18.9
Utah19907.46.58.3
Utah19916.25.47.0
Utah19925.95.26.7
Utah19936.05.26.8
Utah19946.15.36.9
Utah19955.24.55.9
Utah19965.95.26.7
Utah19975.85.16.5
Utah19985.75.06.4
Utah19994.84.25.4
Utah20005.24.55.8
Utah20014.84.25.5
Utah20025.54.86.2
Utah20035.04.45.5
Utah20045.24.65.8
Utah20054.53.95.1
Utah20065.04.45.6
Utah20075.24.65.8
Utah20084.84.25.3
Utah20095.34.75.9
Utah20104.84.25.4
Utah20115.54.96.2
Utah20124.84.25.5
Utah20135.24.55.8
Utah20144.94.35.6
Utah20155.14.55.7
U.S.198012.6
U.S.198111.9
U.S.198211.5
U.S.198311.2
U.S.198410.8
U.S.198510.6
U.S.198610.4
U.S.198710.1
U.S.198810.0
U.S.19899.8
U.S.19909.2
U.S.19918.9
U.S.19928.5
U.S.19938.4
U.S.19948.0
U.S.19957.6
U.S.19967.3
U.S.19977.2
U.S.19987.2
U.S.19997.1
U.S.20006.9
U.S.20016.9
U.S.20026.9
U.S.20036.8
U.S.20046.8
U.S.20056.9
U.S.20066.7
U.S.20076.8
U.S.20086.6
U.S.20096.4
U.S.20106.2
U.S.20116.0
U.S.20126.0
U.S.20136.0
U.S.20145.8

Data Notes

U.S. figures from NVSR Report Deaths: Final Data for 2015

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births by County, Utah, 2010-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

CountyDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 30
Beaver10.34.121.2*
Box Elder5.33.57.7
Cache4.63.65.9
Carbon2.70.96.4*
Daggett****
Davis4.94.25.7
Duchesne5.12.78.6
Emery6.42.313.9*
Garfield****
Grand5.11.413.0*
Iron7.45.210.2
Juab6.32.613.1*
Kane10.23.323.7*
Millard6.02.412.4*
Morgan****
Piute0.0
Rich****
Salt Lake5.04.65.4
San Juan6.93.312.7*
Sanpete5.12.68.9
Sevier5.42.69.8*
Summit5.02.78.6
Tooele4.12.66.0
Uintah4.93.07.5
Utah4.84.25.3
Wasatch4.12.07.5*
Washington4.83.76.1
Wayne****
Weber6.55.57.6
State5.04.85.3

Data Notes

Note: County represents county of infant's residence. *Use caution in interpreting; the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. **The estimate has been suppressed because 1) the relative standard error is greater than 50% or cannot be determined, 2) the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health


Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births by Utah Small Area, 2010-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Utah Small AreasDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 67
Brigham City5.93.29.8
Box Elder Co (Other)5.02.78.3
Logan4.93.66.5
Cache Co (Oth)/Rich Co (All)4.12.46.4
Ben Lomond6.95.09.3
Morgan Co (All)/Weber Co (E)4.42.57.2
Ogden (Downtown)8.45.811.7
South Ogden3.01.55.4*
Roy/Hooper7.25.010.2
Riverdale6.94.111.0
Clearfield/Hill AFB5.23.87.0
Layton6.14.68.1
Syracuse/Kaysville3.92.45.9
Farmington/Centerville2.51.14.7*
Woods Cross/North Salt Lake5.73.68.5
Bountiful4.52.86.9
SLC (Rose Park)7.34.910.5
SLC (Avenues)5.42.410.7*
SLC (Foothill/U of U)3.71.67.2*
Magna6.43.810.0
SLC (Glendale)8.75.812.4
West Valley (West)5.44.07.2
West Valley (East)6.63.611.1^
West Valley (East) V24.52.77.1#
SLC (Downtown)7.24.810.5
South Salt Lake5.02.88.2
Millcreek2.61.44.3
Holladay2.41.14.5*
Cottonwood5.12.98.3
Kearns7.54.411.8^
Kearns V28.95.912.9#
Taylorsville (E)/Murray (W)4.62.77.2
Taylorsville (West)5.32.79.3
Murray4.32.47.1
Midvale4.02.36.4
West Jordan (NE)3.61.28.4*^
West Jordan (NE) V27.54.312.2#
West Jordan (SE)6.84.410.1
West Jordan (W)/Copperton3.41.95.5
South Jordan3.11.84.8
Sandy (Center)4.63.06.8
Sandy (NE)3.71.48.1*
Sandy (SE)4.51.98.8*
Riverton/Draper3.32.44.4
Tooele Co4.12.66.0
Lehi/Cedar Valley4.43.45.5
American Fork/Alpine3.82.35.9
Pleasant Grove/Lindon3.42.25.2
Orem (North)6.04.18.4
Orem (West)4.42.76.7
Orem (East)5.63.19.4
Provo (North)/BYU5.43.57.9
Provo (South)4.33.15.8
Springville/Spanish Fork5.64.37.2
Utah Co (South)5.13.27.7
Summit Co5.02.78.6
Wasatch Co4.12.07.5*
TriCounty LHD5.13.57.1
Juab/Millard/Sanpete Co5.63.78.2
Sevier/Piute/Wayne Co5.12.69.2*
Carbon/Emery Co4.02.07.1*
Grand/San Juan Co6.33.410.5
St George4.53.16.4
Washington Co (Other)5.03.47.2
Cedar City7.45.210.3
Southwest LHD (Other)8.34.813.5
State5.04.85.3

Data Notes

Note: Small Area represents Small Area of infant's residence. *Use caution in interpreting, as the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. ^Due to Utah Small Area reclassification, these numbers only include data for 2010-2011. #Due to Utah Small Area reclassification, these numbers only include data for 2012-2015. A description of the Utah Small Areas may be found on IBIS at the following URL: [http://ibis.health.utah.gov/resource/Help.html].

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health


Infant Mortality by Local Health District, Utah, 2010-2015, and U.S. 2014

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Local Health DistrictDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNote
Record Count: 15
Bear River4.83.95.9
Central5.53.87.5
Davis County4.94.25.7
Salt Lake County5.04.65.4
San Juan6.93.312.7*
Southeast4.22.47.0
Southwest5.74.76.9
Summit5.02.78.6
Tooele4.12.66.0
TriCounty5.03.57.0
Utah County4.84.25.3
Wasatch4.12.07.5*
Weber-Morgan6.35.47.4
State of Utah5.04.85.3
U.S.5.8

Data Notes

Note: Local Health District represents local health district of infant's residence. * Use caution in interpreting, as the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. Prior to 2015 San Juan County was part of the Southeast Local Health District. In 2015 the San Juan County Local Health District was formed. Data reported are for all years using the current boundaries.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Infant Mortality Average Rate by Year Groups, Utah, 2004-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

YearAverage Rate per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 4
2004 to 20064.94.65.3
2007 to 20095.14.75.4
2010 to 20125.04.75.4
2013 to 20155.04.75.4

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health


Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births by Leading Causes of Death, Utah, 2000-2015

::chart - missing::

Infant Cause of DeathYearDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsNote
Record Count: 96
Perinatal Conditions20002.0
Perinatal Conditions20011.9
Perinatal Conditions20022.4
Perinatal Conditions20032.2
Perinatal Conditions20042.2
Perinatal Conditions20051.8
Perinatal Conditions20062.2
Perinatal Conditions20072.1
Perinatal Conditions20082.1
Perinatal Conditions20092.6
Perinatal Conditions20102.1
Perinatal Conditions20112.5
Perinatal Conditions20122.0
Perinatal Conditions20132.4
Perinatal Conditions20142.3
Perinatal Conditions20152.1
Congenital Malformations20001.7
Congenital Malformations20011.4
Congenital Malformations20021.6
Congenital Malformations20031.4
Congenital Malformations20041.6
Congenital Malformations20051.3
Congenital Malformations20061.5
Congenital Malformations20071.6
Congenital Malformations20081.2
Congenital Malformations20091.4
Congenital Malformations20101.4
Congenital Malformations20111.4
Congenital Malformations20121.5
Congenital Malformations20131.3
Congenital Malformations20141.5
Congenital Malformations20151.3
SIDS20000.4
SIDS20010.2*
SIDS20020.2
SIDS20030.3
SIDS20040.3
SIDS20050.3
SIDS20060.3
SIDS20070.2*
SIDS20080.3
SIDS20090.3
SIDS20100.2*
SIDS20110.6
SIDS20120.5
SIDS20130.5
SIDS20140.2*
SIDS20150.4
Medical Conditions20000.5
Medical Conditions20010.8
Medical Conditions20020.6
Medical Conditions20030.6
Medical Conditions20040.5
Medical Conditions20050.4
Medical Conditions20060.5
Medical Conditions20070.6
Medical Conditions20080.7
Medical Conditions20090.4
Medical Conditions20100.5
Medical Conditions20110.5
Medical Conditions20120.5
Medical Conditions20130.6
Medical Conditions20140.5
Medical Conditions20150.7
Undetermined20000.2*
Undetermined20010.4
Undetermined20020.3
Undetermined20030.2
Undetermined20040.1*
Undetermined20050.2*
Undetermined20060.4
Undetermined20070.3
Undetermined20080.2
Undetermined20090.2
Undetermined20100.4
Undetermined20110.1*
Undetermined20120.1*
Undetermined20130.1*
Undetermined20140.2*
Undetermined20150.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20000.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20010.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20020.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20030.1*
Unintentional/Accidental20040.3
Unintentional/Accidental20050.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20060.1*
Unintentional/Accidental20070.3
Unintentional/Accidental2008**
Unintentional/Accidental20090.3
Unintentional/Accidental20100.2
Unintentional/Accidental20110.2
Unintentional/Accidental20120.1*
Unintentional/Accidental20130.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20140.2*
Unintentional/Accidental20150.3

Data Notes

*Use caution in interpreting, as the estimate has a relative standard error greater than 30% and does not meet UDOH standards for reliability. **The estimate has been suppressed because 1) the relative standard error is greater than 50% or cannot be determined, 2) the observed number of events is very small and not appropriate for publication.

Data Sources

  • Utah Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health
  • Utah Death Certificate Database, Office of Vital Records and Statistics, Utah Department of Health

References and Community Resources

Maternal and Infant Health Program - Utah Department of Health[[br]] [http://www.health.utah.gov/mihp][[br]] [[br]] Maternal and Child Health Bureau - Health Resources and Services Administration[[br]] [http://mchb.hrsa.gov][[br]] [[br]] Reproductive Health - CDC[[br]] [http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/index.htm][[br]] [[br]] March of Dimes[[br]] [http://www.marchofdimes.com/]

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 12/08/2016, Published on 12/27/2016
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Tue, 19 June 2018 10:10:05 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Fri, 26 May 2017 10:19:46 MDT