Complete Health Indicator Report of Diabetes Prevalence Among Utah Youth
DefinitionDiabetes prevalence among Utah youth refers to the rate of diabetes among Utah youth less than 18 years of age.
NumeratorPopulation less than 18 years of age who were reported to have been diagnosed with diabetes. (Reported by knowledgeable adult in the household in the Utah Healthcare Access Survey.)
DenominatorTotal Utah population less than 18 years of age.
Why Is This Important?Prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes has increased among youth less than 18 years of age. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. This type of diabetes most often develops during childhood, particularly around the age of puberty. With type 2 diabetes, insulin is still produced but it is not used efficiently, allowing high levels of glucose to be spilled into the bloodstream. Although the reason for the increase in type 1 diabetes is not well understood, much of the increase in type 2 diabetes among youth can be explained by the increase in the number of children who are overweight or obese, or at risk for being overweight or obese. Diabetes can lead to heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, and amputation. The longer a person has diabetes, the greater the chance for complications to develop. Therefore, diabetes that develops at young ages is a major health concern. Youth with diabetes are at particular risk for ketoacidosis, a condition in which blood glucose levels rise to a dangerously high level. Ketoacidosis is an emergency situation that can lead to coma and death without immediate attention.
Other ObjectivesThe Utah Diabetes Prevention and Control Program subscribes to the importance of reversing the trend of rising obesity in youth. Healthy People 2010 Objective 19-3, "Reduce the proportion of children and adolescents who are overweight or obese," underscores the importance of this issue, recommending a target of having five percent or less of children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 who are overweight or obese.
How Are We Doing?The overall prevalence of diabetes among Utah youth, the majority of whom have type 1 diabetes, increased gradually between 1991 (a rate of 2 per 1,000 youth less than 18) and 1996 (a rate of 3 per 1,000 youth less than 18). The most recent data indicates that the estimated percentage has not increased significantly and remains at 3 per 1,000 (2006-2008 Utah Healthcare Access Survey).
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?National prevalence of diabetes is estimated to be 2.2 cases per 1,000 individuals under the age of 20 (American Diabetes Association, Diabetes Statistics 2006: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-statistics.jsp). The estimated prevalence of diabetes for the age group less than 18 in Utah is slightly higher, at about 3 (2.7) per 1,000 (0.2%-0.36%) (2006-2008 Utah Healthcare Access Survey).
What Is Being Done?The Utah Diabetes Prevention and Control Program strives to prevent diabetes in children, and to ensure proper care for those who have developed it. The Program strives to encourage healthful behaviors among youth, primarily through community organizations.
Available ServicesThe Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) covers diabetes supplies for children up to age 19 in working families lacking health insurance coverage. Individuals of all ages may participate in a state-funded high-risk insurance pool sponsored by the state and administered by IHC Health Plans. This program was established to accommodate individuals with diabetes who might not otherwise qualify for health insurance coverage. Support groups often help individuals cope with the demands of managing diabetes. For example, the Foundation for Children and Youth with Diabetes provides year-round activities for young people with diabetes. A week-long teen retreat is held during the summer, complemented by several weekend activities held throughout the year. Small fees apply, but waivers may be available, depending on the activity. Leadership opportunities are also available for youth attending the workshops and activities. More information is available at http://www.fcydcamp.org. In addition, the American Diabetes Association sponsors "The Clubhouse" for young children, ages 4 to 7, with diabetes. Several Clubhouse events are held in Utah for children with diabetes each year (see www.diabetes.org).
Health Program InformationThe Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Program (HDSPP) has established the Gold Medal School Initiative for elementary schools throughout the state to encourage healthy behaviors and reduce the risk of overweight among students. Currently more than 300 Utah schools participate in the Gold Medal Schools progam (http://www.hearthighway.org/gms/index.htm).
Relevant Population CharacteristicsThe exact cause of type 1 diabetes in youth is unknown, although it appears that an individual must have a genetic predisposition combined with exposure to some environmental trigger before it will develop. Environmental factors that trigger diabetes have not been specifically identified, but recent research suggests that infections, such as mumps, rubella, or coxsackie B, may play a role. Although less than one percent of American youth have diabetes, the risk increases to 2-3 percent if the mother has type 1 diabetes and may be as high as 6 percent if the father has type 1 diabetes.
Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:
Health Care System FactorsThe Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) covers diabetes supplies for children up to age 19 in working families lacking health insurance coverage. Individuals of all ages may participate in a state-funded high-risk insurance pool sponsored by the state and administered by IHC Health Plans. This program was established to accommodate individuals with medical conditions, including diabetes, who might not otherwise qualify for health insurance coverage.
Risk FactorsThere is little difference in the prevalence of diabetes among youth by gender, but there is wide variation by race and ethnicity across the U.S., especially within the context of age. Among youth, non-Hispanic White persons have the highest risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Related Risk Factors Indicators:
Health Status OutcomesChildren and youth with diabetes face considerable physical and emotional challenges, both in terms of physical and emotional health. Besides the constant monitoring of blood glucose levels, good diabetes management requires watching one's diet, getting sufficient exercise, and managing stress. Adhering to a strict diabetes protocol can be challenging, and may be particularly stressful for adolescents.
Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:
Graphical Data Views
References and Community ResourcesUtah Diabetes Prevention and Control Program http://health.utah.gov/diabetes Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). Enrollment is always open. CHIP is available to youth under age 19 who are not covered by other health insurance. Youth must be U.S. citizens or legal residents. http://health.utah.gov/chip Toll free 1-877- KIDS-NOW (1-877-543-7669) Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Gold Medal Schools Initiative http://www.hearthighway.org/gms/index.html Tipping the Scales Toward a Healthier Population in Utah http://health.utah.gov/obesity/documents/Blueprint.pdf The Clubhouse is a day camp offered for young children with diabetes each summer. Several Clubhouse events are held in Utah for children with diabetes each year. Contact the American Diabetes Association at 1-800-DIABETES for more information. Kids Rock the World provides information for young teens with diabetes. It is a good place to check for upcoming outdoor activities that will help teens with diabetes learn to take on physical challenges that will inspire them. http://www.keyvive.com/kids-rock-the-world Primary Children's Medical Center 100 North Mario Capecchi Drive Salt Lake City, Utah 84113-1100 General info: (801) 662-1000 intermountainhealthcare.org/hospitals/primarychildrens
More Resources and LinksEvidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:
- The Guide to Community Preventive Services
- Health Indicators Warehouse
- County Health Rankings
- Healthy People 2020 Website
Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:
- Health Indicators Warehouse
- County Health Rankings
- Kaiser Family Foundation's StateHealthFacts.org
- CDC WONDER's DATA2010, the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.
For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.
Page Content Updated On 10/20/2010, Published on 07/22/2015