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Complete Health Indicator Report of Chlamydia Cases

Definition

Rate of newly reported cases of chlamydia by date of diagnosis per 100,000 persons.

Numerator

Number of newly reported cases of chlamydia by date of diagnosis.

Denominator

Number of persons in Utah.

Data Interpretation Issues

Reported chlamydia rates are calculated by dividing the number of cases within the population of interest by the total number of persons within that population, then multiplying by 100,000. It should be noted that rates within small populations are volatile; a small change in the number of cases can noticeably change the rate. This change may look significant, but, statistically, it may not be. Caution is strongly recommended when interpreting small case numbers and rates.

Why Is This Important?

Infections caused by the bacterium ''Chlamydia trachomatis'' are the most frequently reported notifiable disease in Utah, with 9,459 cases reported in 2016. Over sixty percent of the reported cases were among persons between 15 and 24 years of age. The overall rate for chlamydia in Utah in 2016 was 310.0 cases per 100,000 persons. Females with chlamydia are at risk for developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and both men and women may become infertile as a result of untreated chlamydia. Untreated chlamydia infections can damage the reproductive systems of both males and females. Susceptibility to more serious infections such as HIV also increases when an individual is infected with chlamydia. In addition, pregnant women with chlamydia can pass the infection to their infant during delivery, potentially resulting in pneumonia or neonatal ophthalmia.

Healthy People Objective STD-1:

Reduce the proportion of adolescents and young adults with ''Chlamydia trachomatis'' infections
U.S. Target: Not applicable, see subobjectives in this category

Other Objectives

Related Healthy People 2020 Objectives STD-1: Reduce the proportion of adolescents and young adults with ''Chlamydia trachomatis'' infections among:[[br]] * STD-1.1: Females aged 15 to 24 years attending family planning clinics * STD-1.2: Females aged 24 years and under enrolled in a National Job Training Program * STD-1.3: Males aged 24 years and under enrolled in a National Job Training Program [[br]] STD-3: Increase the proportion of sexually active females aged 24 years and under enrolled in Medicaid plans who are screened for genital Chlamydia infections during the measurement year among: * STD-3.1: Females aged 16 to 20 years * STD-3.2: Females aged 21 to 24 years [[br]] STD-4: Increase the proportion of sexually active females aged 24 years and under enrolled in commercial health insurance plans who are screened for genital Chlamydia infections during the measurement year among: * STD-4.1: Females aged 16 to 20 years * STD-4.2: Females aged 21 to 24 years [[br]] STD-5: Reduce the proportion of females aged 15 to 44 years who have ever required treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

How Are We Doing?

Chlamydia rates in Utah have increased from 2000 to 2016, except for a slight decrease in 2004 (2.7%) and 2013 (3.0%). The overall rate increase can be attributed to increased screening efforts, use of increasingly sensitive diagnostic testing, efforts to increase reporting by providers and laboratories, and improved information systems for reporting. Such increased rates can be interpreted as an advancement in disease control as more infections are identified and treated, providing opportunity to intervene in the spread of infection. Chlamydial infections in both men and women are commonly asymptomatic, yet screenings occur more often among females, resulting in higher rates of reported infections among females. However, with the increased availability of urine testing, men are increasingly being tested for chlamydial infection. Over the past 10 years in Utah, the chlamydia rate in men increased by 72.6% as compared to a 45.0% increase in women over this period.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

Chlamydial infections are the most frequently reported notifiable disease in the U.S., with 1,598,354 cases reported in 2016. Of these reported chlamydia infections, 63% were among those 15 to 24 years of age. The overall rate for chlamydia in the U.S. in 2016 was 497.3 cases per 100,000 persons. The chlamydia rate in Utah is significantly lower than the U.S. rate. In 2016, Utah's chlamydia rate ranked 46th in the nation. (CDC. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats16 ''Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance''], 2016) In Utah in 2016, persons aged 20 to 24 years reported the highest rates of chlamydia in both males and females. The rate for females in this age group in Utah in 2016 was 1,837.6 cases per 100,000 persons compared with 3,779.0 cases per 100,000 persons in the U.S. in 2016. The rate for males aged 20 to 24 years in Utah in 2016 was 810.7 per 100,000 persons compared with 1,558.6 cases per 100,000 persons in the U.S. in 2016. (CDC. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats16/default.htm ''Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance''], 2016)

What Is Being Done?

Persons who test positive for chlamydia are confidentially interviewed by a disease intervention specialist from their local health department to educate the patient, ensure proper treatment, and to obtain sexual partner information for follow up. This process helps prevent diagnosed individuals from spreading the infection and the patient from becoming reinfected. The Utah Department of Health Communicable Disease Prevention Program, along with local health departments, currently provide STD (sexually transmitted disease) presentations upon request to a variety of organizations, agencies, and facilities.

Available Services

Local health districts have STD (sexually transmitted disease) clinics located at their local health department(s) where individuals can be tested and treated for STDs at minimal or no cost. Planned Parenthood has locations throughout Utah that also provide STD services at minimal cost. Condoms are available at these locations. STD presentations are available through the Utah Department of Health upon request. The Utah Department of Health also has educational pamphlets available. The Utah Minor's Consent Law allows adolescents between the ages of 14 and 17 years to be tested and treated for an STD without the consent of a parent.


Related Indicators

Relevant Population Characteristics

Due to anatomical and hormonal differences, women are more susceptible to acquiring chlamydia than men. Women are also screened for chlamydia more frequently than males. Therefore, women carry an excessive proportion of the chlamydia burden. In 2016, 64% of the chlamydia cases reported to the Utah Department of Health (6,032 cases) were in females. Adolescent and young adult females 15 to 24 years of age represented 68.7% of the cases among females (4,145 cases). Adolescent and young adults have a higher incidence of chlamydia. In 2016, persons 15 to 24 years of age represented 16.1% of Utah's population but accounted for 60.2% of the reported chlamydia cases (5,688 cases). This can be attributed to increased risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults, biochemical differences increasing transmission rates, and increased screening among this age group.

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Health Care System Factors

Chlamydia rates in Utah have generally increased since 2000. This can be attributed to increased screening efforts, use of increasingly sensitive diagnostic testing, efforts to increase reporting by providers and laboratories, and improved information systems for reporting.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases include: * sexual activity among young adults 25 and younger * multiple sex partners * prior history of STDs * unprotected sex * illicit drug use [[br]] Those who fall within one or more of these categories should be tested for STDs in regular intervals. Sites of infection may include pharynx, rectum, vagina, cervix, and urethra. Due to anatomical and biochemical differences, women are also at increased risk for acquiring chlamydia than men.

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Health Status Outcomes

Untreated chlamydia in women may advance to PID (pelvic inflammatory disease), resulting in an increased likelihood of ectopic pregnancy, preterm delivery, or infertility. Untreated chlamydia in men may result in infertility.

Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Chlamydia, Utah and U.S., 1992-2016

::chart - missing::

Utah vs. U.S.YearCases per 100,000 Persons
Record Count: 50
Utah199293.6
Utah199387.1
Utah199492.5
Utah199583.9
Utah199676.5
Utah199785.8
Utah1998102.9
Utah1999101.2
Utah200098.0
Utah2001134.3
Utah2002150.5
Utah2003165.0
Utah2004160.6
Utah2005187.2
Utah2006201.5
Utah2007220.2
Utah2008226.1
Utah2009225.8
Utah2010240.5
Utah2011250.5
Utah2012266.4
Utah2013258.4
Utah2014279.3
Utah2015287.9
Utah2016310.0
U.S.1992182.3
U.S.1993178.0
U.S.1994192.5
U.S.1995187.8
U.S.1996190.6
U.S.1997205.5
U.S.1998231.8
U.S.1999247.2
U.S.2000251.4
U.S.2001274.5
U.S.2002289.4
U.S.2003301.7
U.S.2004316.5
U.S.2005329.4
U.S.2006344.3
U.S.2007367.5
U.S.2008398.1
U.S.2009405.3
U.S.2010423.6
U.S.2011453.4
U.S.2012453.3
U.S.2013443.5
U.S.2014452.2
U.S.2015475.0
U.S.2016497.3

Data Notes

Rates were calculated by dividing the number of cases for each year by the total population within that year and multiplying by 100,000. Prior to 2009, Utah rates were calculated using the morbidity report date; effective 2009, rates were calculated using the date of diagnosis.

Data Sources

  • Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2016
  • Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology
  • National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Chlamydia by Age and Sex, Utah, 2016

::chart - missing::

Males vs. FemalesAge GroupCases per 100,000 Population
Record Count: 10
Male15-19396.7
Male20-24810.7
Male25-29657.3
Male30-34416.1
Male35+98.4
Female15-191,621.5
Female20-241,837.6
Female25-29814.5
Female30-34432.0
Female35+66.1

Data Notes

Rates were calculated by dividing the number of cases within each age/gender group by the total population within that group and multiplying by 100,000.

Data Sources

  • Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2016
  • Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology


Chlamydia by Race/Ethnicity, Utah, 2016

::chart - missing::

Race/EthnicityCases per 100,000 Persons
Record Count: 7
American Indian, Alaskan Native522.8
Asian244.4
Black, African American1,307.2
Hispanic, Latino554.7
White, Non-Hispanic223.3
Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander770.6
Two or More Races67.2

Data Notes

Rates were calculated by dividing the number of cases within a race/ethnicity group by the population within that group and multiplying by 100,000.

Data Sources

  • Population Estimates by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for Counties in Utah, U.S. Bureau of the Census, IBIS Version 2016
  • Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology


Chlamydia by Local Health District, Utah, 2016

::chart - missing::

Local Health DistrictCases per 100,000 Persons
Record Count: 13
Bear River198.1
Central110.8
Davis County284.9
Salt Lake County451.2
San Juan313.7
Southeast169.2
Southwest204.8
Summit295.2
Tooele249.9
TriCounty216.2
Utah County172.2
Wasatch140.9
Weber-Morgan338.6

Data Notes

Rates were calculated by dividing the number of cases within a local health district by the total population in that district and multiplying by 100,000.

Data Sources

  • Utah Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology
  • Population Estimates: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) through a collaborative agreement with the U.S. Census Bureau, IBIS Version 2016

References and Community Resources

Fact sheets for communicable diseases may be found on the Bureau of Epidemiology website [http://health.utah.gov/epi/diseases/chlamydia/factsheet.pdf]. Other STD resources are available on the Bureau of Epidemiology website [http://health.utah.gov/epi/prevention/]. Screening Guidelines [http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/screening-recommendations.htm]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention website [http://www.cdc.gov/std]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ''Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2016''. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2017. [http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats16/]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015 Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines [http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment].

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.

Page Content Updated On 12/29/2017, Published on 01/08/2018
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's Center for Health Data IBIS-PH web site (http://ibis.health.state.gov). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Fri, 20 April 2018 23:41:48 from Department of Health, Center for Health Data, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.gov ".

Content updated: Mon, 8 Jan 2018 14:48:51 MST